Proteins

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Proteins are compounds composed of?

carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen

Proteins are arranged into these chains?

Amino Acid

The human body contains an estimated _____ kinds of proteins

10,000 - 50,000

Protein is the only macronutrient to contain this element?

Nitrogen

What suffix means nitrogen containing?

Amino

Some amino acids contain what other element?

sulfur

What makes up proteins?

Amino Acids

What part of the amino acid structure contains a negarive charge and the Alkaline group?

Amino Group

What part of the amino acid structure contains the carboxyl group is acidic and contains a positive charge?

Acid Group

All AA's share common structures with different?

side groups

There are _____ common amino acids that may be classified into ___ groups based on structure.

20 7

What is the phrase used to remember the essential amino acids?

Harry watches TV TILL PM

What are the essential Amino Acids?

Histidine Tryptophan Valine Theronine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Phenylalanine Methionone

How many essential amino acids are there?

9

Essential amino acids must be obtained from your?

diet

Nonessential amino acids can be produced in the?

body

Nonessential amino acids are also provide by _______ in foods

proteins

The condensation of 2 AA bonded together is known as a?

Dipeptide

The condensation of 3 AA bonded together is known as a?

Tripeptide

The condensation of 4-9 AA bonded together is known as a?

Oligopeptide

The condensation of 10 or more AA together is known as a?

Polypeptide

a ____ _______ is a bond that connects the acid end of one AA with the amino end of another AA, forming a link in a protein chain.

Peptide Bond

Disulfide bridges formed by S atoms link _____ molecules together in Insulin

Cysteine

Each human AA sequence is unique with small _______ in body's proteins

differences

Each human amino acid sequence is determined by ______

genes

Instructions for making every protein is filed in the ______ with in each ____ _____

DNA Cell Nucleus

Errors that alter AA sequence/ mistakes made in copying genetic code is known as a?

sequencing error

Sickle-cell anemia is an example of a?

sequencing error

What shape of protein acts as a carrier protein?

hollow spheres

What shape of protein is strong ex. tendon

rod-like structures

What shape of protein contain other compounds?

folded globular polypeptide chains

A protein's _______ helps determine its function in the body.

Shape

when a cell makes a protein, the gene for that protein has been ________.

expressed

Switching genes on and off, without changing the genetic sequence, is known as ___________

epigenetics

when a protein is ________ or uncoiled it loses it shape and function

denatured

Denaturation is caused by what 6 main things?

Heat Acids Bases Alcohol Agitation Heavy Metals

In the stomach protein is broken down by pepsin and HCL into smaller _________.

polypeptides

In the small intestine and pancreas polypeptides are broken down by pancreatic and intestinal proteases into ______, ________ and ______ ______

tripeptides dipeptides amino acids

In the small intestine and pancreas peptides are broken down by intestinal tripeptidases and dipeptidases into _____ ______ and absorbed

amino acids

The major organ of protein digestion is the?

Stomach

enzyme that hydrolyzes peptide bonds are known as?

peptidase

Enzyme that cleaves peptide bonds within the protein chain?

endopeptidase

enzyme that cleaves the bonds at the chain end to release free AA?

exopeptidase

______ ________ are the end products of protein hydrolysis.

amino acids

amino acids are transported from the small intestines to the liver via the?

bloodstream

Protein can be _______ material for growth and maintenance.

building

Proteins can act as an _______ which facilitates a specific reaction.

enzyme

Proteins can act as a ______ which are chemical messengers secreted by the endocrine glands in response to altered conditions in the body

Hormones

Proteins function in the regulation of _____ _______ by helping maintain the proper types and amounts of fluids in each body compartment.

fluid balance

swelling do to an excess of in interstitial fluid is known as ______

edema

compounds that help keep a solution's acidity or alkalinity constant are called?

buffers

_______ are good buffers because all proteins contain acidic components and basic components

proteins

________ is when the blood gets to acidic or too many positive charges

acidosis

________ when the blood gets to alkaline or basic; too many negative charges.

alkalosis

Whenever plasma proteins act as buffers it is always _____ because you never have extra protein.

bad

proteins can be used as ________ of other substances like hemoglobin or lipoproteins.

transporters

______ are large proteins produced by the immune system in response to the invasion of the body by foreign molecules.

antibodies

substances that elicit the formation of antibodies or an inflammation reaction from the immune system are known as?

Antigens

______ is the #1 quantitative protein in the body and it is used for scar formation

collagen

what precent of AA are gluconeogenic or can be used for energy?

50

The constant degradation and synthesis of protein that occurs with in each cell is known as protein _______.

turnover

The supply of AAs derived from either food proteins or body proteins that collect in the cells and circulation blood is known as the?

Amino Acid Pool

Nitrogen _______ is the amount of nitrogen consumed as compared with the amount of nitrogen excreted in a given time period.

balance

Pregnant women and growing children have a ______ nitrogen balance which causes more protein synthesis.

positive

Starvation, stress, burns and trauma all cause a ______ nitrogen balance which causes more protein degradation.

negative

_______ is when AA are stripped of there nitrogen containing compounds

deamination

________ is caused by deamination, released into the blood stream, converted into urea and then excreted.

ammonia

_____ quality proteins that contain all the EAAs in relatively the same amount that human beings require.

high

What are the two factors that influence protein quality?

Digestibility and Amino Acid composition

_____ is a measure of the amount of AAs absorbed from a given protein intake.

Digestibility

EAA found in the shortest supply relative to the amounts needed for protein synthesis is known as the ______ amino acid.

limiting

_____ protein is a standard against which the quality of other proteins is measured.

reference

The standard against which the quality of other proteins is measured (reference protein) is the EAA requirements of _________ aged children.

preschool

________ proteins are two or more dietary proteins whose AA assortments complement each other in such a way that the EAAs missing from one are supplied by the other

complementary

___ _____ ______ is A deficiency of protein, energy, or both, including kwashiorkor, marasmus, and overlapping conditions

Protein energy malnutrition

_____ PEM is recent severe food deprivation

acute

______ PEM is long-term food deprivaiton

chronic

____ or starvation: Form of PEM that results from a severe deprivation of, or impaired absorption of, energy, protein, vitamins, & minerals over a long time (chronic PEM)

marasmus

_____ is a Form of PEM that results either from a sudden/recent inadequate protein intake or, commonly, infection (acute PEM)

Kwashiorkor

edema, flaky paint dermatitis and the flag sign in hair are all signs of _______

Kwashiorkor

_____ is the collection of fluid in the abdomen

Ascities

_____ is the body's adaptation to starvation

Marasmus

_______ occurs when adaptation to starvation fails.

Kwashiorkor

what is the RDA for protein per G/KG per day

.8

what percentage of energy intake is recommended for protein _____ to ______.

10 35

Increasing protein consumption to >35% puts a strain on _________.

kidneys

_______ and diets low in total fat help vegetarians maintain healthier body weights.

fiber

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