AP Psychology, Chapter 15 Study Guide

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an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

The text best defines personality as:

the psychoanalytic perspective

Which of the following places the greatest emphasis on the unconscious mind?

lust

According to Freud, defense mechanisms are methods of reducing:

oral; anal; phallic; latency; genital

Which of the following is the correct order of psychosexual stages proposed by Freud?

Freud placed too much emphasis on sexual and aggressive instincts

Neo-Freudians such as Adler and Horney believed that:

better able to cope with stress

Research on locus of control indicates that internals are ________ than externals.

extraversion-introversion and emotional stability-instability

Which two dimensions of personality have the Eysencks emphasized?

there is little consistency of behavior from on situation to the next but significant consistency of traits over the life span

With regard to personality, it appears that:

emphasizes the growth potential of "healthy" individuals

The humanistic perspective on personality:

genuineness, acceptance, and empathy

According to Rogers, three conditions are necessary to promote growth in personality. These are:

is generally adaptive to the individual because it maintains self-confidence and minimizes depression

Regarding the self-serving bias, psychologists who study the self have found that self-affirming thinking:

development is essentially fixed in childhood

Which of Freud's ideas would not be accepted by most contemporary psychologists?

they have low reliability and low validity

Projective tests such as the Rorschach inkblot test have been criticized because:

overestimates the consistency of behavior in different situations

A major criticism of trait theory is that it:

self-concept; positive; negative

For humanistic psychologists, many of our behaviors and perceptions are ultimately shaped by whether our ____ is ________ or _____.

use a personality inventory

In studying personality, a trait theorist would most likely:

pleasure principle; reality principle

Id is to ego as _____ is to ________.

it focuses too little on the inner traits of a person

Which of the following is the major criticism of the social-cognitive perspective?

reaction formation; displacement

Recent research has provided more support for defense mechanisms such as ______ than for defense mechanisms such as _______.

basic dimensions of personality; the interaction of persons and environments

Today's personality researchers focus their work on:

social-cognitive

Which perspective on personality emphasizes the interaction between the individual and the environment in shaping personality?

our biological impulses and the social restraints against them

According to Freud's theory, personality arises in response to conflicts between:

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

The _______ classifies people according to Carl Jung's personality types.

learned helplessness

Seligman has found that humans and animals who are exposed to aversive events they cannot escape may develop:

more critical of others

Research has found that individuals who are made to feel insecure are subsequently:

see themselves as better than average on nearly any desirable dimension; accept more responsibility for successes than failures

An example of the self-serving bias described in the text is the tendency of people to:

empirically derived and objective personality test

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is a(n):

describe and classify people in terms of their predispositions to behave in certain ways

Trait theory attempts to:

people with an internal locus of control achieve more in school

With which of the following statements would a social-cognitive psychologist agree?

people with low self-esteem tend to be non-conformists

Which of the following statements about self-esteem is not correct?

phallic stage

The Oedipus and Electra complexes have their roots in the:

the concepts are vague and subjective; the emphasis on the self encourages selfishness in individuals; humanism fails to appreciate the reality of evil in human behavior

Which of the following is a common criticism of the humanistic perspective?

observing behavior in different situations

In studying personality, a social-cognitive theorist would most likely make use of:

trait theory defines personality in terms of behavior, and psychoanalytic theory in terms of its underlying dynamics; trait theory describes behavior but does not attempt to explain it; psychoanalytic theory emphasizes the origins of personality in childhood sexuality

A major difference between the psychoanalytic and trait perspective is that:

emotional stability, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness

The Big Five personality factors are:

there is no evidence of anything like an "unconscious"

Which of the following was not mentioned in the text as a criticism of Freud's theory?

identification; superegos

According to Freud, ________ is the process by which children incorporate their parents' values into their ________.

none of the above (women, ethnic minorities, disabled persons)

Which of the following groups tend to suffer from relatively low self-esteem?

altruism

In promoting personality growth, the person-centered perspective emphasizes all but:

some tendencies decrease during adulthood, while others increase

Recent research on the Big Five personality factors provides evidence that:

terror-management theory

Professor Minton believes that people strive to find meaning in life because they are terrified of their own mortality. Evidently, Professor Minton is a proponent of:

id; superego

A psychoanalyst would characterize a person who is impulsive and self-indulgent as possessing a strong _______ and a weak ________.

social-cognitive

Because Ramona identifies with her politically conservative parents, she chose to enroll in a conservative college. After four years in this environment Ramona's politics have become even more conservative. Which perspective best accounts for the mutual influences of Ramona's upbringing, choice of school, and political viewpoint?

fixated in the oral stage of development

Jill has a biting, sarcastic manner. According to Freud, she is:

the self-serving bias

James attributes his failing grade in chemistry to an unfair final exam. His attitude exemplifies:

overestimate the extent to which other people are noticing them

The behavior of many people has been described in terms of a spotlight effect. This means that they

extravert; stimulation

Because you have a relatively low level of brain arousal, a trait theorist would suggest that you are a(n) _____ who would naturally seek _____.

the MMPI

A psychologist at the campus mental health center administered an empirically derived personality test to diagnose an emotionally troubled student. Which test did the psychologist most likely administer?

a projective test

The personality test Teresa is taking involves her describing random patterns of dots. What type of test is she taking?

trait

Dr. Gonzalez believes that most students can be classified as "Type A" or "Type B" according to the intensities of their personalities and competitiveness. Evidently, Dr. Gonzalez is working within the _____ perspective.

has some unresolved conflicts concerning her mother

According to the psychoanalytic perspective, a child who frequently "slips" and calls her teacher "mom" probably:

is an introvert; is an extrovert

Isaiah is sober and reserved; Rashid is fun-loving and affectionate. The Eysencks would say that Isaiah _____ and Rashid _____.

reciprocal determinism

In high school, Britta and Debbie were best friends. They thought they were a lot alike, as did everyone else who knew them. After high school, they went on to very different colleges, careers, and life courses. Now, at their twenty-fifth reunion, they are shocked at how little they have in common. Bandura would suggest that their differences reflect the interactive effects of environment, personality, and behavior, which he refers to as:

independence

For his class presentation, Bruce plans to discuss the Big Five personality factors used by people throughout the world to describe others or themselves. Which of the following is not a factor that Bruce will discuss?

is not necessarily unusual

Dayna is not very consistent in showing up for class and turning in assignments when they are due. Research studies would suggest that Dayna's inconsistent behavior:

is a self-actualizing person

Andrew's grandfather, who has lived a rich and productive life, is a spontaneous, loving, and self-accepting person. Maslow might say that he:

humanistic

The school psychologist believes that having a positive self-concept is necessary before students can achieve their potential. Evidently, the school psychologist is working within the ________ perspective.

teach her children first to accept themselves

Wanda wishes to instill in her children an accepting attitude toward other people. Maslow and Rogers would probably recommend that she:

rationalization

Suzy bought a used, high-mileage automobile because it was all she could afford. Attempting to justify her purchase, she raves to her friends about the car's attractiveness, good acceleration, and stereo. According to Freud, Suzy is using the defense mechanism of:

an introvert

Nadine has a relatively high level of brain arousal. Trait theorists would probably predict that she is:

is rooted in science

During a class discussion, Trevor argues that "positive psychology" is sure to wane in popularity, since it suffers from the same criticisms as humanistic psychology. You counter his argument by pointing out that, unlike humanistic psychology, positive psychology:

humanistic

Which of the following theoretical frameworks would argue most strongly that a healthy child will choose what is good for his or her growth?

all humans are by nature good

The humanistic perspective in psychology suggests that:

psychoanalytic

Which perspective views the human condition as a mixture of unconscious desires and conflicts?

projective personality

A Rorschach Inkblot test is an example of what kind of test?

cognitive

Although Paul seems bright and capable to his parents and friends, he has been failing in school. Paul agrees to speak with a psychologist, who suggests that his problems stem from internal processes such as unrealistic expectations and negative thinking. The psychologist's view is typical of which of the following models of behavior?

heart disease

A hostile person with a type A personality is most at risk for developing which of the following?

projective

The technique of assessing personality by asking a person to make up a story based on a picture presented by the researcher is and example of which of the following types of tests?

temperament

Which of the following reflects the inborn and stable rudiments of personality, such as excitability?

intuition

Which one of the following is NOT on the scale of the Big Five Personality Inventory?

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