Speech 1315 Midterm

98 terms by kikitx93

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channel

the way a message is sent

communication

the process of sharing meaning by sending and receiving symbolic cues

critical thinking

the logical, reflective examination of information and ideas to determine what to believe or do

decoding

the process of attaching meanings to symbols received

encoding

the process of selecting symbols to carry a message

environment

the physical setting and occasion for communication

feedback

verbal and nonverbal responses between communicators about the clarity or acceptability of messages

group communication

three or more people interacting one another to pursue a common goal

interpersonal communication/dyadic communication

communication between individuals in pairs

interpreter

any person using symbols to send or receive messages

intrapersonal communication

communicating with oneself

listener

the intermittent, learned and active process of giving attention to sound

mass communication

one person or group communicating to a large audience through some print or electronic medium

message

ideas communicated verbally and nonverbally

noise

anything that distracts from effective communication

physical noise

distractions origination in the communication environment

physiological noise

distractions originating in the bodies of communicators

psychological noise

distractions originating in the thoughts of communicators

public communication

one person communicating fafe to face with an audience

referent

the object or idea each interpreter attaches to a symbol

speaker

the sender, encoder, or source of the message

symbol

anything to which people attach meaning

ethics

morals, values, knowing right from wrong in thought and action

fair use provision

section of US copyright law allowing limited noncommercial use of copyrighted materials for teaching, criticism, scholarship, research, or commentary

intentional plagiarism

the deliberate use of another's ideas

paraplage

plagiarism consisting of half original writing and half quotation from unattributed source

plagiarism

the attributed use of another's ideas

unintentional plagiarism

the careless or unconscious unattributed use of another's ideas

cognitive restructuring

a strategy for reducing communication anxiety by replacing negative thoughts with positive ones

communication apprehension

a speaker's lever of fear or anxiety resulting from anticipated or real communication with others

visualization

a strategy for reducing communication anxiety by picturing yourself delivering a successful speech

criticism

feedback offered for the purpose of improving a speaker's speech

factual distractions

listening disturbances caused by attempts to recall minute details of what is being communicated

hearing

the continuous, natural, and passive process of receiving aural stimuli

listening

the intermittent, learned, and active process of giving attention to aural stimuli

norms

the values critics believe are necessary to make any speech good, effective, or desirable

physical distractions

listening disturbances that originate in the physical environment and are perceived by the listeners senses

physiological distractions

listening disturbances that originate in a listeners illness, fatigue, or unusual bodily stress

psychological distractions

listening disturbances that originate in the listeners attitudes, preoccupations, or worries

reasons

statements that justify a critics judgment

semantic distractions

listening disturbances caused by confusion over the meaning of words

attitude

a statement expressing an individual's approval or disapproval

audience disposition

listener's feelings of like or dislike or neutrality toward a speaker, the speaker's topic, or the occasion for a speech

audience profile

a descriptive sketch of listener's characteristics, values, beliefs, attitudes, and actions

audience segmentation

the strategy of dividing an audience into various subgroups based on their demographic and physiological profiles

audience targeting

the strategy of directing a speech primarily toward one or more portions of the entire audience

behavior

an individuals observable action

belief

a statement that people accept as true

captive audience

a group of people who are compelled to assemble to listen to a speaker

demographics

characteristics of the audience such as age, gender, ethnicity, education, etc.

Maslow's hierarchy

five basic human needs: physiological (food) , safety, belongingness, esteem, and self actualization

psychographics

characteristics of the audience, such as values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors

value

judgment of what is right wrong, usually expressed as words or phrases

voluntary audience

a group of people who have assembled of their own free will to listen

audience-generated topics

speech subjects geared to the interests and needs of a speaker's listeners

brainstorming

noncritical free association to generate as many ideas as possible

general purpose

the broad goal of a speech, such as to inform, persuade, or entertain

occasion-generated topics

speech subjects derived from particular circumstances, seasons, holidays, or life events

research-generated topics

speech subjects discovered by investigating a variety of sources

self-generated topics

speech subjects based on the speaker's interests, expertise, and knowledge

specific purpose

a statement of the general purpose of the speech, the speakers intended audience, and the limited goal or outcome

speech to inform

a speech designed to convert new or useful information

speech to actuate

speech to influence audience behaviors

speech to convince

speech to influence audience beliefs and attitudes

speech to entertain

speech to make a point through creative humor

speech to persuade

speech to influence beliefs and actions

thesis statement

a one sentence synopsis of a speaker's message

visual brainstorming

informal written outline achieved by free associating around a key word or idea

circular conclusion

conclusion that repeats or refers to a material used in the AGD

direct question

a question that asks for an overt response from listeners

preview

a statement that orients the audience by revealing how the speaker had organized the body of the speech

rhetorical question

a question not meant to be answered out loud

summary

a statement reviewing the major ideas of the speech

complete sentence outline

an outline in which all numbers and letters introduce complete sentences

coordinate ideas

ideas that have equal value in a speech

formal outline

a complete sentence outline written in sufficient detail that a person other than the speaker could understand it

key word or phrase outline

an outline in which all numbers and letters introduce words or groups of words

speaking outline

a brief outline for the speaker's use alone and containing source citations and delivery prompts

subordinate ideas

ideas that support more general or more important points in a speech

working outline

an informal, initial outline recording a speaker's process of narrowing, focusing, and balancing a topic

appearance

a speaker's physical features including dress and grooming

articulation

the mechanical process of forming the sounds necessary to communicate in a particular language

delivery

the way a speaker presents a speech through voice qualities, bodily actions, and language

eye contact

when a speaker looks a listener in the eye

facial expression

the tension and movement of various parts of a speakers face

gestures

movements of a speakers hands, arms, and head while delivering a speech

impromptu speaking

speaking without advance preparation

inflection

patterns changing in a person's pitch level while speaking

movement

a speaker's motion from place to place during speech and delivery

pause

an intentional or unintentional period of silence during delivery

pitch

the highness or lowness of a speaker's voice

posture

the position of a speaker's body while giving speech

pronunciation

how the sounds of a word are to be said and which parts are to be stressed

rate

the speed at which a speech is delivered

speaking extemporaneously

delivering a speech from notes or from a memorized outline

speaking from manuscript

delivering a speech from a text written word for word and practiced in advance

speaking from memory

delivering a speech that is recalled word for word from a written text

volume

the relative loudness or softness of a speaker's voice

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