a circumscribed, elevated lesion that is more than 5mm in diameter, usually contains serious fluid and looks like a blister
A segment or lobe that is a part of the whole?
an area that is usually distinguished by a color different from that of the surrounding tissue; it is flat and does not protrude above the surface of the normal tissue.
what is an example of a macule?
A small circumscribed lesion usually less than 1cm in diameter that is elevated or protrudes above the surface of normal surrounding tissue?
Attached by a stemlike or stalklike base similar to that of a mushroom
Variously sized circumscribed elevations containing pus
describing the base of a lesion that is flat or broad instead of a stemlike?
a small, elevated lesion less than 1cm in dameter that contains serious fluid?
localized tumor that does not invade or metastasize?
tumor that invades and can meastasize?
malignant neoplasm of epithelial orgin?
malignant neoplam of connective tissue orgin?
abnormal amount of surface keratin?
enlargement due to increased number of cells?
enlargement due to increased size of cells?
smalls hemorrhagic spots?
bleeding within skin (bruise)
no.. only when inflammatory condition is involved
in normal state can lymph nodes be palpated?
drains midlower lip, top of tongue. anterior floor of mouth, and mandibular incisor?
drains upper and lower teeth except mandibular incisors, upper lip, lateral portion of lower lip, buccal mucosa. anterior lateral margin of tongue?
drains parotid gland, posterior tongue, palate, nasopharynx?
A lymph node with _________ involvement is usually firm (hard), fixed to surrounding tissue and non-tender to palpation
during what condition are the lymph nodes usually moveable, soft and painful?
smaller than normal tooth?
maxillary lateral incisors(peg lateral) and 3rd molars
The teeth most frequently affected by microdontia are?
a larger than normal tooth?
the union of two separate tooth germs?
Appears as an extra wide tooth that may have a single enlarged root or two roots?
the splitting of one tooth germ?
It appears as a wide tooth and may show an indentation making it appear as two crowns.. There is no missing tooth?
the uniting of teeth by cementun... usually is caused by crowding teeth or result from repair following periapical inflammation?
during an extraction
When would concresence be a concern?
a condition in which the root or crown of a tooth is curved?
dens in dente
invagination on the surface of the crown... a tooth within a tooth?
dens in dente is most often seen on?
is congenitally missing teeth ( one or more)
max lateral, 3rd molars, bicuspids
what are the most common missing teeth?
this is sometimes associated with extodermal dysplasia?
hyperdontia (supernumerary teeth)
an extra teeth?
what is the most common supernumerary teeth?
between the max centra incisors
mesiodens is located?
molar region (exp 3rd molar)
the 2nd most common location of a supernumerary teeth is the?
a mass of enamel that is located at the furcation of the roots?
presents as a tooth with an enlarged body at the expense of the roots (seen only on x-ray)... enlarged pulp chamber
an accessory cusp usually located on the lingual of maxillary anterior teeth?
the defective formation of enamel as a result of something other then heredity i.e., nutritional deficiencies, high fevers, excessive fluoride ingestion?
It appears as pitting or deep grooves on the teeth usually following a pattern of tooth development?
a localized form of enamel hypoplasia caused by periapical inflammation or trauma is known as?
appears as white spots on the teeth. These areas feel soft with an explorer and are more susceptible to caries?
occur from distrubances in the enamel matrix?
hereditary and manifests as defective enamel?
The enamel may be thin, pitted, soft or discolored and in some cases easily chips away.?
is hereditary and manifests as defective dentin?
The enamel is normal but may be lost early due to severe attrition. The teeth appear opalescent (yellowish to blue-gray color) and the pulp chambers are obliterated?
what should be recommended to neuralize the acid for bulimic patients?
resorption caused by excessive forces, trauma or a tumor?
The root resorbs and oftern appears short and blunterd. commonly seen in people who have had orthodontic treatment?
the loss of tooth structure beginning within the pulp of a tooth. Radiographically, it appears as an ovoid enlargement of the pulp?
clinically, appears as a pink spot beneath the enamel? maybe caused by injury to the pulpal tissue
root canal therapy
the treatment of internal resorption is >
alcifications that are found in the pulp chamber.?
is excess cementum associated with excessive occlusal trauma and/or chronic apical inflammation?
hypercenentosis may be seen in patient with?
s brown or black intrinsic stain seen on teeth that were developing when the patient was ingesting the antibiotic ?
between 4 months of gestation and 8 years of age
tetracycline stains usually occur when adminstered
a condition seen in ectodermal dysplasia is?
commissural lip pits
invaginations located at the corners of the lips. They may be unilateral or bilateral?
ectopic sebaceous glands that are often seen on the buccal and labial mucosa and on the upper lip?
They appear as white or yellow raised dots. They are normal and do not need to be treated?
an enlarged tongue due to over-development of the musculature or vascular malformation?
acromegaly and down syndrome
Macroglossia can be found in people with?
occurs when the lingual frenum is short?
Benign migratory glossitis or geographic tongue
is the loss of filiform papillae (denuded areas) that appears in different areas at various times on the dorsum of the tongue.?
fissured tongue... usually goes together with geographic tongue
a tongue with heavy folds, irritated by food and debris, the patient should brush their tongue to keep it clean?
Black hairy tongue
Elongation of the filiform papilla and is seen on the posterior dorsum of the tongue. It is caused by agents such as antibiotics, hydrogen peroxide, smoking and alcohol. The color is a result of chromogenic bacteria and tobacco stains.?
irritation or inflammation
An enlarged foliate papilla is sometimes seen on the lateral border of the tongue. It is a result of?
developmental condition that is caused by the lack of fusion between the medial nasal process and the maxillary process?
6th and 7th weeks of gestation
Cleft lip occurs during?
he maxillary processes of the palate do not fuse?
4th month - 12th week of gestation
cleft palate occurs during?
is white with a red halo and is caused by trauma or injury such as accidental biting of tissues during chewing, toothbrush injury to the mucosa, or dry cotton roll tissue trauma?
appears as a painful white area of epithelial necrosis that may slough off leaving a large ulcerated area on the buccal or labial mucosa?
s a local reaction at a sensitized site following repeated contact with a causative agent such as toothpaste, mouthwash, cinnamon chewing gum/lozenge?
A medical consult is necessary when an oral ulceration is not healing within how many weeks?
s a wrinkled opalescent whitish/gray variation on the buccal mucosa. It is important to remember that it often disappears when the mucosa is stretched. It is seen most often in African Americans or in darker complexioned individuals. No treatment is necessary?
describe a white patch that will not rub off.?
tabacco chewer lesion
s a type of leukoplakia which appears as a large white rough area located where the smokeless tobacco is placed. It is often seen in the mucobuccal fold?
clinical term used to describe a red patch (that is not inflammation) on the oral mucosa?
clinical term used to describe a lesion that is mostly red, with white spots?
squamous cell carcinoma (epidermoid carcinoma)
It most often appears as a white or red lesion or as an ulceration.? most often seen in males 50-70 years old
the lateral border of the tongue
most common location intraorally for squamous cell carcinoma is?
ultiple keratotic circular papules on the palate due to irritation of the minor salivary glands from the intense heat and smoke of pipes, cigars, and cigarettes?
initially appear erythematous and over time become grayish-white with depressed red centers?
papilloma and verruca vulgaris
have a cauliflower-like appearance and are pink or white in color?
papilloma and verruva vulgaris
are induced by HPV.. most often located on the lip, buccal mucosa, tonngue or soft palate...?
what is the treatment for papilloma and verruca vulgaris?
aused from long-standing denture irritation. It is located in the vestibule?
is associated with hormonal changes, chronic irritants or trauma. It can be seen in women during pregnancy (pregnancy tumor) or in males or females from response to injury?
It appears as a deep red protrusive mass and most often needs to be excised?
yellowish, pedunculated, soft tissue mass composed of adipose (fatty) tissue?
is a genetic disorder of the neuro tissue that is characterized by multiple elevated nodules on the skin and mucosa. Some patients will also have "café au lait" spots which are pigmented areas on the skin.?
a pigmented, elevated lesion that most often occurs on the skin, but may also occur intraorally?
most common place for a Nervus(mole) intraorally is>
is caused by adrenal cortical insufficiency. Symptoms include weakness, weight loss, hypotension, and bronzing of the skin. An important oral sign is pigmentation of the oral mucosa ?
Orally it is characterized by white lines that form a lacy-like pattern (reticular type)?
striae of wickham
lichen planus line are referred to as?
an autoimmune disease charecterized by a butterfly pattern over the cheeks and bridge of the nose. It may vary in color and texture
what is the treatment for lupus?
Skin lesions are characteristically referred to as "target" lesions.?
painful vesicularbullous condition that affects the skin and oral mucosa. It is most often seen in young adults and is often precipitated by an identifiable agent such as a food, a drug, or an infection (i.e. herpes simplex)?
is an infection caused by the coxsackie virus that produces small, multiple ulcerations in the soft palate? mainly seen in children and young adult usually last a week?
a fungal infection that may appear as a white curd like lesion that can rub off and is erythematous (red) underneath
nystatin or other antifungal med
what is the treatment for candidiasis?
a form of candidiasis, red, often seen under dentures?
This may also be seen in cases of nutritional deficiency (Vitamin B12 deficiency, also known as pernicious anemia, or other Vitamin B complex deficiencies) and in patients with a loss of vertical dimension?
median rhomboid glossitis
appears as a smooth elevated zone in the posterior midline of the tongue?
median rhomboid glossitis
current theory is that it is a chronic fungal infection caused by Candida albicans and should be treated with nystatin or other antifungal medications?
sexually trasmitted disease
acquired syphilis is a?
syphillis is treated with?
primary syphilis is the first stage and is identifiable by a _____ at the site of contact..?
what stage of acquired syphilis is very contagious?
stage of syphilis that occurs 2-5 months after initial infection?
what stage of syphilis do u see mucous patch?
the final stage of syphilis occurs years later, mainly involves CMS and cardiovascular system?
what stage of syphilis is the destructive lesion referred to as gumma?
syphilis is seen when a mother passes it on to a fetus?
The classic oral symptoms include Hutchinson's or notched incisors (leutic incisors) and mulberry molars?
Petechia in the palate can be associated with?
epstein barr virus
what is the etiology of infectious mononucleosis?
oral manifestation of aids
They include rapidly progressive gingivitis and periodontitis (in the absence of plaque), candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, herpetic infections and Kaposi's sarcoma?
s a vascular proliferation that appears blue, red or purple in color?
what is the most common site for a mucocele?
is a fluid filled lesion that is seen in the floor of the mouth?
caused by the blockage of the submandibular or sublingual gland?
an autoimmune condition that causes dry mouth (xerostomia) and dry eyes. It may also cause swelling of the parotid glands? usually seen in middle aged women?
what is the most common benign salivary gland tumor?
what is the most common maliganat salivary gland tumor?
a cavity lined by epithelium that is often fluid filled?
how do cyst appear on a radiograph?
cyst not lined by epithelium?
odontogenic and developmental
oral cysts are divided into 2 main types.. name them
cyst that derived from epithelium during tooth development?
cysts that are not related to tooth develpment?
composed of purulent exudate?
composed of granulation tissue?
periaical pathosis (dental granulomas, abscesses and radicular cysts)
refers to a radiolucent lesion located at the root apex?
cyst located at the apex of a non-vital tooth
chronic hyperplastic pulpitis
is the proliferation of inflamed pulp tissue. This is often associated with a large carious lesion in a child or young adult.?
lateral periodontal cysts
cysts are associated with the periodontal ligament. They are seen most often in the mandibular bicuspid and cuspid region?
dentigerous (follicular) cyst
cysts that surround an unerupted or impacted tooth?
a type of dentigerous cyst associated with the crown of an erupting tooth?
a cyst that develops in place of a tooth?
3rd molar area
most common location of a primordial cyst is?
appears as an inverted pear shaped radiolucency in the maxillary lateral and cuspid area?
a distinctive cyst of the jaws that is more aggressive than other odontogenic cysts. The lumen of the cyst may contain variable amounts of keratin. It has a recurrence rate of approximately 30%
incisive canal cyst (nasopalatine duct cyst)
cyst that is located in the incisive canal area near the incisive foramen?
median palatine cyst
a cyst seen in the midline of the palate in the bicuspid or molar region?
simple bone cyst (traumatic bone cyst)
not a true cyst, occurs as an asymptomatic lesion in patients younger than 20 years of age and presents radiographically as a radiolucency of the jaws?
static bone cyst (the submandibular salivary gland depression)
not a true cyst, appears as a radiolucency below the inferior alveolar canal in the posterior mandible?
appears as small radiopaque masses and are found most often in the anterior part of the jaw.. often resemble an accumulation of small teeth?
odontogenic tumors composed of enamel, dentin, cementum and dental pulp
appear as a large radiopaque masses and are seen more often in the posterior region of the jaw? (do not resemble teeth)
posterior region of the jaw
where is complex odontomas most often found?
locally aggressive benign odontogenic tumor that may cause massive expansion of the jaw (mainly occurs in posterior mandible)?
Radiographically, it classically appears as a multilocular ("soap bubble") radiolucent lesion. It is slow growing, with the average age of occurrence between 20 and 40 years of age?
periapical cemental dysplasia
appears most often in African American females who are 40 years of age and older. It is found in the mandibular anterior region. It starts as a radiolucent lesion, and becomes radiopaque over time?
If bony growths are located on the mandibular or maxillary ridge opposite the facial or buccal mucosa they are known as
is a bone disorder in which there is a reduction in bone mass, leading to an increase in bone fractures?
is a bony condition seen in older patients where the bones may become thickened and weakened?
radiographically the classic presentation is the cotton wool appearance?
oral characteristics include hypercementosis and loss of lamina dura? another important feature is an elevated serum alkaline phosphatase level...
complictions of this condition include bone fracture and osteosarcoma?
a malignant tumor of bone. Oral symptoms may include pain, swelling, loosening of teeth, and paresthesia. ?
radiographically the tumor may be radiolucent, radiopaque or a combination.. in some cases the classic sunburst appearance maybe seen on a radiograph?
slow growing tumor?
pain and swelling and unilateral widening of the periodontal space
characteristic of an osteosarcoma would include?
is an uncommon condition seen most often in middle-aged Scandinavian women. Characteristics include iron deficiency anemia, with atrophic mucositis of the upper gastrointestinal tract. ?
an uncommon blood condition characterized by an uncontrolled increase in red blood cells. It usually affects older adults. ?
a blood condition in which there is a severe decrease in or absence of circulating granulocytes is?
gingival enlargement and petechial hemorrhages may be associated with?
is a common chromosomal aberration that occurs in approximately one out of 100 - 700 births, can include protruded, fissured and enlarged tongue, high arched palate, microdontia, enamel hypoplasia. crowding, increased incidence of periodontal disease?
trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux)
is a form of chronic facial pain involving the trigeminal nerve with no definitive cause.?
charecteristics: sudden and extreme pain, precipitated by a trigger zone, duration usually less than n60 seconds, usually unilateral. patient may have spontaneous remission?
usually a self limiting nerve paralysis of the facial (VII) nerve of unknown etiology?
constriction of the microcirculation
in inflammatory response the 1st microscopic event is?
the directed movement of white blood cells to the area of injury is called?
lymphocytes and plasma cells
which cells are most common in chronic inflammation?
during the process of inflammation, the second type of white blood cell to emigrate from the blood vessel into the injured tissue is the?
gingiva or alveolar mucosa
the peripheral giant cell granuloma only occurs on the?
a salivary gland stone is called?
epulis fissuratum results from irritaion caused by?
what is the most common cause of a radicular cyst?
the cental giant cell granuloma may appear as a __________ radiolucency?
the usual location of periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia (cementoma) is?
rocky mountain spotted fever is what kind of infection?
bilateral, rapidly spreading swelling with cellultis on the floor of the mouth and neck; it oftern is result from infective mandibular molars?
a calcium channel blocker that causes gingival enlargement?