mid-term

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As a therapist, Dr. Mark helps clients recognize their own inner potential to reach personal goals. Most likely, Dr. Mark is what type of therapist?

humanistic

correctly lists the goals of psychology

describe,predict,explain,control/change

the following is a causal hypothesis

the amount of alcohol consumed will influence the ability to walk a straight line

LaDonna is a researcher who studies the behavior of rats. Because she studies rats and not humans, LaDonna

still has to get institutional review board approval and still has to follow APA ethical guidlines

the correct sequence of steps in the scientific method

define the issue, form a hypothesis, choose a research stragety, conduct a study, analyse the data

the following is true regarding the use of deception in psychological research

Deception is allowable as long as it is justifiably necessary and participants are debriefed appropriately

Sigmund Freud's ideas led to his formulation of

psychoanalytic theory

A psychologist holding a biological view would most likely have a focus on

the brain

Your psychology teacher believes that for psychology to be truly scientific, it must focus on observable and measurable actions. Your teacher is most likely a

behaviorist

You are advising a friend on her choice of career. She says that she wants to be a psychologist. Knowing this, you should advise your friend that the highest level of degree that she will likely need to earn is a/an

doctorate

the following would be of most interest to an industrial/organizational psychologist

methods of increasing employee satisfaction

Darwin's finches were an application of William James' idea of

functionalism

the following psychologists most likely has a Psy.D. degree

clinical psychologist

Psychologists attempt to understand behavior and mental processes by

using the scientific method

The study of how humans attain happiness is known as

positive psychology

Early scientific psychology was influenced by

philosophy,medicine,physiology

Evolutionary psychology shares a similarity with functionalism in that they both

focus on the ability of organisms to adapt to their environment

Psychology became a distinct scientific field of study when

Wihelm Wundt established a laboratory to study the mind in the late 1800

Most psychologists take an eclectic approach in terms of the perspectives of psychology they use to explain people. This means that they

intergrate several perspectives

The sociocultural perspective in psychology emphasizes the

the role of society and culture in determinng behavior

Naturalistic observations are predominantly used to achieve the goals of

description and prediction

the following is true regarding the use of animals in psychological research

any animal used in research must be treated humanely and accord with all the laws and regulations

this statement would most likely have been made by William James

rather than studying the elements of consciousness, psychology should study the function consciousness serves

the organization establishes the ethical guidelines for research conducted by psychologists

American Psychological Association

Psychology is defined as the

scientific study of behavior and mental processes

A hypothesis is

an educated guess about the anticpated outcome of a study

Similar to Wilhelm Wundt, if you were to use a self-observation technique to analyze the basic elements of your thought processes, you would most likely be using a method called

introspection

the gap between adjacent neurons is called

synapse

you are unable to remember any of the events or episodes of your life, it may be because of damage to your

hippocampus

Parkinson's disease is to

small amounts of dopamine

schizophrenia is to

large amounts of dopamine

The chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain is

GABA

the chief excitatory neurotransmitter is

glutamate

Neurotransmitters are most analogous to

mail carriers delivering mail

The branch of the nervous system that includes neurons that run between the brain and the muscles and between the brain and the internal organs is the

peripheral nervous system

to name and function of all the neurotransmitters that researchers have identified, you would have to learn about how many neurotransmitters

more than 100

If you take a drug that causes neurons in your brain to stop firing, the drug is said to have waht effects

inhibitory

When you reach out and accidentally touch a hot stove, information is sent through what neurons to tell your central nervous system that it is hot.

sensory

The two main divisions of the nervous system are

peripheral, central

The symptoms of depression that may follow heavy use of MDMA (ecstasy) may result from depleted levels of

serotonin

Alzheimer's patients are often prescribed medications that are designed to improve awareness and memory. The neurotransmitter most likely affected by these drugs is

acetylcholine

An action potential is a

neural impulse

speeds up neural signal

myelin

Each neuron in the brain can potentially synapse with up to how many other neurons

10,000

recycling and returning of neurotransmitters to the presynaptic neuron

reuptake

the left hemisphere seems to be more active during

linguistic

the right hemisphere seems to be more active during

spatial

the dominant perspective on the nature-nurture debate is interactionism, which is the view that

depending upon the specific trait or behavior, both nature and nurture can be important through their interaction with each other.

The two major communication systems within the body are

nervous and endocrine

Michael Gazzaniga's split-brain patients

were unable to name objects they saw in their left visual field

the following is the most likely source of pleasure we get from eating and sexual activity

dopamine

allows brain researchers the best opportunity to view the activity of a single cell or organ

fMRI scan

Receptor sites for communication exist on

postsynaptic neuron

involves myelin loss, causing neural impulses to travel around in the brain without making it to their destinations

MS

If Clark had no ions in his nervous system

he would not be able to create any action potentials

subset of the autonomic nervous system

sympathetic nervous system

The sympathetic nervous system activates a

stress response

the parasympathetic nervous system activates a

calming response

Based on the experience of Phineas Gage, who accidentally had a metal rod shot through part of his head, it appears that the

the frontal lobe regulates judgemnet and emotional response

ability to experience happiness and pleasure is probably most dependent upon which brain structure

the limbic system

One of the reasons that you may not want to spend money to attend a seminar on becoming more of a right-brain thinker is that recent research shows that

both sides work together in most intellectual and behavioral tasks

If you are currently taking a drug that affects your behavior, most likely it is affecting the

activity occuring within the synapse

the correct sequence for secretion of hormones

hypothalamus, pituitary gland, endocrine glands, organs of the body

In the nervous system information is passed through the body's

neurons

in the endocrine system information is passed through the body's

bloodstream

How do neurotransmitters "communicate" with postsynaptic neurons

like "A key fitting into a lock" they bind with corresponding receptor sites on the dendrites of the neuron.

people suffering from autism or Asperger syndrome experience abnormal activity in the

amygdala

when you want to make an impressive dance move, information is sent through your

motor neurons

Once an action potential reaches the end of the axon, how does the information usually get to the next neuron?

Vesicles at the end of the axon release neurotransmitters that float across the synaptic cleft to the next neuron

The structure in the brain that connects the endocrine system and the nervous system is the

hypothalamus

Prozac inhibits the reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin. When you take Prozac, the effect of this drug will be to

increase the time serotonin in the synapse of the brain

Using your previous experiences to perceive something is

top-down processing

elying only upon the immediate stimulus properties to perceive something is

bottom-up processing

The trichromatic theory states that

three different types of cones detect three different primary colors of light

Westerners tend to focus on

details of objects

Asians tend to focus on

contextual relationships

the conversion of enviromental stimuli into a form that the nervous system can process

transduciton

An individual suffering from red-green colorblindness, is most likely missing

either red or green cones

transduciton for vision occurs in the

rods ans cones

experiences dont greatly influence the processes involved in

sensation

experiences greatly influence the processes involved in

perception

Signal detection research would be most useful for

air traffic controllers

When your attention is focused upon the items on your desk rather than the desk itself, you are making a distinction that relies on the Gestalt principle of

figure-ground

Beata was born without cone cells in her retina. What effect will this most likely have on her vision

she will be colorblind

If a person could hear colors, or see odors, the person might have a rare condition called

synthesthesia

more directly associated with perception than sensation

interpretation

While driving at night, you are most likely to have trouble perceiving

colors

If your retina contained only rods, you would be unable to

see color

When photopigments of the eye split apart

transduction is occuring

Military personnel wearing camouflage clothing in order to blend into the surrounding environment are hoping that this strategy will cause the enemy to be fooled by the principle called

good continuation

The opponent-process theory states that

cells in the visual system are senstiive to two colors of light, but not at the same time

ability to view the environment in three dimensions, rather than two, is primarily a

perception process

Eyewitnesses to a crime often misidentify the criminal because they fill in gaps in their memory with things they expected to see

an example of top-down processing

Perception is defined as the

the interpretation of sensory information

Psychophysicists study

how the mind interprets basic sensory stimuli

In sensation, environmental energy is converted into action portentials

true

the correct sequence of structures involved in vision

cornea, lens, retina

Top-down processing can lead to perceptual errors because

our expectations can strongly influence what we preceive

Grouping people together on the basis of an observable characteristic such as height would exemplify the Gestalt principle of

similarity

helps psychologists predict the change in a stimulus that would be needed to produce a noticeable difference

webers law

If your psychology teacher conducts research on specific neurons in the occipital lobe to determine when they fire in response to specific visual stimuli, he is most likely a/an

feature detection theorist

Certain animals may be able to see you in the dark better than you can see them because

they can see a wider range of the electromagnetic spectrum than you.

Which of the following psychologists would most likely agree with the statement, "the whole is greater than the sum of its parts?"

Gestalt psychologist

rods are to

periphery of retina

cones are to

center of retina

Individuals with narcolepsy

experience sudden episodes of REM sleep during alert times of the day

The activation-synthesis theory of dreaming suggests that

dreams represent the brains attempt to create meaning from randon neural impulses

Circadian rhythms are

cahnges in the bodily processes that occur on a predictable basis

Shemar appears to awaken in fear. His eyes are open, but he is actually in deep sleep. Shemar does not remember the incident in the morning. Shemar is experiencing

night terrors

14-year old Mohammed often urinates in his bed while he is in stage III or IV sleep. Mohammed has a sleep disorder called

enuresis

From which stage of sleep is it most difficult to be awakened?

stage IV

As you relax in preparation to sleep (but before you actually fall sleep), your brain waves will typically change from

beta to alpha

true regarding the effects of hypnosis

hypnosis has been used quite successfully in pain relief

When a person is sleepwalking you can be fairly confident that he/she is not

acting out dreams

Based on what you know about hypnosis and memory you should be

skeptical of both recoverd memories and attempts at age regression while hypnotized

most common reported sleep disorder is

insomnia

The three most widely used psychoactive drugs by people over the age of 12 in the United States are

alcohol, nicotine, caffeine

Joseph suffers from REM behavior disorder. This means that

his body is not experiencing teh muscle paralysis that normally accompanies REM sleep

Megan has a 4-month-old infant son and is anxious that he might die from SIDS. What can Megan do to reduce her sons risk?

put her son to sleep on his back

Hypnosis is described as a

method used to create a heightened state of suggestability

Should you awaken your friend who is spending the night and is sleepwalking?

yes, sleep walkers can injure themselves if they are not awakened

Omars wife notices that when Omar sleeps, he repeatedly stops breathing until he emits a large snore that wakes him up. Omar is experiencing

sleep apnea

alcohol is to

depressent

caffeine is to

stimulant

Psychoactive drugs can affect nervous system activity by

blocking, speeding up, mimicking

You are having trouble getting to and staying asleep at night and are wondering if you should try sleeping pills. What would the experts tell you?

they can disrupt your REM sleep, so they should be avoided

If Lebron, who is asleep and dreaming, and Kobe, who is awake, were both given brain scans, what would you expect their scans to look like?

both would be similar with large amounts of activity

Alcohol would not be a good remedy for insomnia, because it

reduces the time spent in REM sleep

nightmares

occur in REM sleep

night terrors

occur in deep sleep

If you miss a night of sleep, the next time you sleep you are likely to experience

REM rebound

both elevate dopamine levels

nicotine and cocaine

a 3-15 burst of sleep occuring in the midst of a wakeful activity

microsleep

dissociation theory

hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness

response set theory

hynosis is not an altered state

The thoughts, feelings, and aroused states of which we are aware

consciousness

"latent content" is most closely associated with

Freudian theory

best summarizes the current views in psychology on the meaning of dreams

Scientist dont really know wether or not dreams generally have nay special meaning

theory proposes that dreaming is a way to rehearse responses to events that endanger our surviva

threat stimulation theory

Marks: 1 When you dream about a monster chasing you and you realize later that the monster symbolizes the research paper that you have due in one of your classes, this interpretation of the dream is called the

latent content

REM sleep is relativley

active

NON-REM is relativley

relaxed

When you wake up and recall dreaming about taking a test in your psychology class, you are recalling the.

manifest content

REM sleep is experienced by

all mammals

As compared to children, when teenagers want to stay up later in the evening and sleep longer in the morning, the cause may be due to

changes in melatonin secretion

Banduras four-step process in his social learning theory

attention, retention, reproduction, motivation

If a teacher wants to change a pattern of student studying that typically increases on the days prior to a test and drops to almost no studying at all in the days following a test, she should try a variable interval schedule such as a system that uses

random, unannounced tests

classical condittioning is to

association to stimuli

instrumental conditioning is to

consequences of behavior

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