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black codes

states laws passed in the US in order to limit the rights of African Americans.

sharecropping

a system where landowners allowed tenants to use their land in return for a portion of the crops.

tenure of office act

said that the president couldn't remove anyone from office appointed by a previous president without the approval of the senate.

the 13th amendment

said that slavery was a crime.

the 14th amendment

gave a broad definition of citizenship and equal right of all people.

the 15th amendment

prohibited denying the right to vote based on color.

freedman's bureau

a government bureau that provided aid to refugees of the civil war.

scalawags

a term for a southern white in the post-civil war era the supported reconstruction.

compromise of 1877

an informal deal that settled the dispute of the1876 election and allowed Hayes to become president.

"forty acres and a mule"

a phrase that described the promise given to freed slaves.

radical reconstruction

a period in US history after the civil war and involved rebuilding the south between 1865 and 1877.

crop lien system

allowed farmers in the south to use crops to pay back loans.

civil rights act of 1866

a piece of federal legislation that gave the rights to freed slaves after the civil war.

edwin stanton

a lawyer and politician of the civil war and reconstruction era who was appointed attorney general and secretary of state.

crime of '73

US ended minting of silver dollars and placed the country on the gold standard.

jim crow laws

state laws passed between 1876 and 1965 that created "separate but equal" facilities for blacks.

half breeds

Favored tariff reform and social reform, major issues from the Democratic and Republican parties. They did not seem to be dedicated members of either party.

civil service act of 1883

a federal law that ended the spoil system by establishing the US civil service commission with competitive exams.

thomas nast

Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.

boss tweed

A political boss who carried corruption to new extremes, and cheated the city out of more than $100 million.

credit mobilier scandal

sold discounted stocks to congressman and used the position in the government to cover the inflation.

plessy v. ferguson

US supreme court case that stated that racial segregation was constitutional if it was equal.

jay gould

an American financier that was partnered with James Fisk in tampering with the railroad stocks for personal profit He, like other railroad kings, controlled the lives of the people more than the president did and pushed the way to cooperation among the kings where they developed techniques such as pooling.

liberal republican

a party created to oppose the reelection of Grant and his radical republican supporters.

panic of 1873

a long depression that lasted until 1879 and affected the entire nation.

horace greeley

a newspaper editor and creator of the liberal republican party, he tried to fight the corruption of president Grant.

JP Morgan

american financier that merged the Edison and Thomson-Houston to created General Electrics and Carnegie Steel and Federal Steel to make the US Steel Company.

roscoe conkling

NY politician that was a remember of the house reps and the senate and was the leader of the stalwart republicans.

laissez-faire

the philosophy of keeping the economy freed from the government.

grover cleveland

the 22nd and 24th president of the US and was the only democrat in the era of republican domination 1860 and 1912.

jim fisk

an american stock broker who fought for control of the Erie railway and worked with jay gould.

james b. blaine

speaker of the house and US senator who fought for the half breeds and was a dominant republican.

GAR

an organization of veterans of the union army that was first interest group of the american politics.

seward's folly

the purchase of alaska from russia in 1867.

"waving the bloody shirt"

a phrase used to describe using the blood of the martyrs or heroes to avoid criticism.

ohio idea

the idea by midwesterners to redeem war bond in dollars.

whiskey king scandal

conspiracy between government agents and whiskey distillers to avoid taxes.

belknap scandal

he was accused of bribery under Grant and was impeached.

resumption act of 1875

the redemption the paper money of the US by greenbacks

gilded age

the substantial growth in population of the US the display of wealth of the upper-class.

samuel tilden

US presidential candidate in the dispute of 1876, lost to Hayes.

rutherford b. hayes

the 19th president of the US won in the controversial election of 1876.

civil rights act of 1875

a federal law that aid everyone regardless of race or color was entitled to equal treatment in public areas.

stalwarts

a sect of the republican party that were against civil service and half breeds.

chinese exclusion act

federal law by president Arthur that suspended the immigration of the chinese.

james garfield

the 20th president of the US that died 6 months after his inauguration.

chester a. arthur

the 21st president of the US, vice president to Garfield, he was a stalwart.

charles guiteau

the american lawyer who assassinated garfield, he was executed by hanging.

"billion dollar congress"

the 51st congress under Harrison, that spent lavishly.

benjamin harrison

the 23rd president of the US, preceded and succeeded by cleveland, passed the mckinley act and sherman antitrust act.

populists

a political party from 1884 to 1908 derived of western farmers and opposed the gold standard.

populist platform of 1892

the party program of the populist party in omaha, nebraska held on july 4th, 1892.

sherman silver purchase act

a federal law that increased the amount of silver in the government purchased.

william jennings bryan

secretary of state under wilson and presidential candidate in 1896

cross of gold speech

speech given by william jennings bryan at the democratic national convention that was in favor of bimetallism.

wilson-gorman tariff

reduced the tariff set by the mckinely tariff and started a 2% income tax.

greenback labor party

an american political party that opposed coins and favored paper money.

greenback movement

the movement of people in support of the US paper dollar.

mugwumps

political activist in favor of Cleveland in 1884 and switched parties because of corruption.

general amnesty act

a federal law that ended voting restriction of secessionists.

ku klux klan

a hate group in the US that works to protect the rights of white Americans by terrorism, violence, and lynching.

carpetbaggers

a term southerns gave to northerners during the reconstruction era.

exodusters

the term given to black who fled to Kansas from the south after reconstruction.

redeemers

a political group in southern US the wanted to get rid of republican freedmen, scalawags, and carpetbaggers.

mckinley tariff

a 48.4% tax on imports in the US passed by congressman and future president Mckinley.

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