Chapter 12

44 terms by mrsbailo 

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Acyclovir is used to treat:

shingles, chickenpox, and genital herpes

Substances that are naturally produced by certain microorganisms that can inhibit or destroy other microorganisms are called:

antibiotics

Which of the following is not a mode of action of anti - viral?

bond to ergostero;l in the cell membrane

An antiviral that is a guanine analog would have an antiviral mode of action that:

blocks DNA replication

Which of the following will influence a physician's decision to prescribe and antimicrobial?

all of the choices are correct

Which organ is responsible for metabolizing and detoxifying foreign chemicals in the blood, including drugs?

liver

Side effects that occur in patient tissues while they are on antimicrobic drugs include all the following, except:

development of resistance to the drug

Which bacteria does Levaquin target?

all of the choices are correct

All of the following pertain to cephalosporins, except:

they are synthetic drugs

All of the following are correct about Tamiflu and Relenza, except:

they prevent assembly and release of the virus

Which of these drugs is useful in treating infections by methicillin - resistant S. aureus and vancomycin - resistant Enterococcus?

linezolid

Broad - spectrum drugs that disrupt the body's normal flora often cause:

superinfections

Why has the United States and Europe banned the use of human drugs in animal feeds?

because it contributes to the growing drug resistance problem

Ampicillin, amoxicillin, mezlocillin, and penicillin G all have:

a beta - lactam ring

Antimicrobics that are macrolides:

include azithromycin, clarithromycin, and erythromycin

The drug used against intestinal anaerobic bacteria, that can also alter normal flora causing antibiotic - associated colitis is:

clindamycin

The most versatile and useful antifungal drug that is used to treat serious systemic fungal infections is:

amphotericin B.

Important characteristics of antimicrobial drugs include:

all of the choices are correct

All of the following are correct about allergic reactions, except:

allergic reactions generally will occur the first time a person takes the drug

he multidrug resistant pumps in many bacterial cell membranes cause:

prevention of drug entry into the cell

Which antimicrobic does not inhibit cell wall synthesis?

gentamicin

Antimicrobics effective against only gram positive bacteria would be termed:

narrow - spectrum

The drug that can cause aplastic anemic, and is used to treat typhoid fever and brain abscesses is:

chloramphenicol

Which of the following describes the mechanism of action for AZT

it is a thymine analog that interferes with DNA synthesis

Salvarsan was

used to treat syphilis

A "shotgun" approach to antimicrobial therapy involves:

using a broad spectrum drug so that the chance of killing the pathogen is greater

There are fewer antifungal, antiprotozoan, and antihelminth drugs compared to antibacterial drugs because these organisms:

are so similar to human cells that drug selective toxicity is difficult

The cellular basis for bacterial resistance to antimicrobics include:

all of the choices are correct

A ratio of the dose of the drug that is toxic to humans versus the minimum effective dose for that pathogen is assessed to predict the potential for toxic drug reactions. This is called the:

therapeutic Inex (TI)

Gram negative rods are often treated with:

aminoglycosides

Antivirals that target reverse transcriptase would be used to treat:

HIV

Sulfonamides:

are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis

Ketoconazole, fluconazole, clotrimazole are broad - spectrum azoles used to treat...................infections

fungal

Penicillins and cephalosporins:

block the peptidases that cross - link glycan molecules

Drug susceptibility testing:

determines the pathogen's response to various antimicrobics

Mebendazole, niclosamide,and invermectin are drugs used to treat........infections

helminthic

All of the following could be reasons why antimicrobic treatment fails, except:

a disk diffusion test showing pathogen sensitivity to the antimicrobic

Antibiotics are derived from all the following, except:

Staphylococcus

A clinical microbiologist makes serial dilutions of several antimicrobics in broth, and then incubates each drug dilution series with a standard amount of a patient's isolated pathogen. What is this microbiologist setting up?

MIC

A chemical that inhibits beta - lactamase enzyme is:

clavulanic acid

All of the following pertain to fluoroquinoclones, except:

are nephrotoxic

Aminoglycosides:

attach to the 30S ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis

Antimicrobials effective against a wide variety of microbial types are termed

broad - spectrum drugs

The drug used for several protozoan infections is:

metronidazole

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