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Nicholas II

the last czar of Russia who was forced to abdicate in 1917 by the Russian Revolution, the last tsar. Wanted supreme rule of army and government. Led the armies to defeat.

Tsarista Alexandra

wife of Nicholas II, hated Stolypin, executed also in Siberia

Rasputin

Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues. He was believed to be having a sexual affair with Tsarina Alexandra and was assassinated by three members of the higher aristocracy; Tsarina Alexandra was very distraught and depressed due to his death (coincidence? I think not). (905)

Duma

The elected parliament. Though through establishing this is seemed like the Czar was giving his people power, in reality he could easily get rid of this if they made any laws or such that he didn't like.

Soviet

an elected governmental council in a Communist country (especially one that is a member of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), councils of workers and soldiers, at first worked democratically within the government

February Revolution

the revolution against the Czarist government which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the creation of a provisional government in March 1917

Alexander Kerensky

Headed the Provisional Government in 1917. Refused to redistribute confiscated landholdings to the peasants. Thought fighting the war was a national duty., Leader of Provincial Government installed in Russia following the March 1917 Revolution; overthrown by Bolsheviks

Menshevik

Members of the non-Leninist wing of the Russian Social-Democratic Worker's Party who called for a political party modeled after Western European political parties

Bolshevik

a memeber of lenin's party that seized power and set up a proletarian dictatorship in Russia.

Vladimir Lenin

Leader of the Bolshevik (later Communist) Party. He lived in exile in Switzerland until 1917, then returned to Russia to lead the Bolsheviks to victory during the Russian Revolution and the civil war that followed.

"Peace, Land, Bread"

Lenin; This was the battle cry of the 1917 October Revolution that would change the history of Russia and affect the entire world.

Leon Trotsky

Supporter of Lenin who helped in the takeover of Petrograd and the Bolshevik revolution, committed Marxist revolutionary that assisted Lenin, turned the Red army into an effective fihting force, use d former czarist officers under watch of commissars

October Revolution

Bolsheviks led by Leon Trotsky and Lenin claimed power in name of the soviets and proclaimed a full-scale revolution with support of workers and troops, provisional government collapsed, Kerensky left Petrograd, not a lot of opposition, just neutrality.. not a lot of violence... Bolsheviks now held power in Petrograd

"Dictatorship of the proletariat"

where the government would own the major means of production (factories, mines, etc) and individuals would continue to own some property.

Russian Civil War

1918-1920: conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Red vs. White Army.

War Communism

A system introduced under Bolshevik rule after 1917 which involved land being seized and redistributed, factories given to the workers, banks being nationalized, and church property being granted to the state. This was enforced by the Cheka.

Red Army

Military organization constructed under leadership of Leon Trotsky, Bolshevik follower of Lenin; made use of people of humble background

Cheka

The re-established tsarist secret police, which hunted down and executed thousands of real or suspected foes, sowing fear and silencing opposition.

NEP

New Economic Policy, (1921) allowed capitalist ventures, state kept control of banks, foreign trade, and large industries, small businesses were allowed to reopen for private profit stopped harassing peasants for grain, and peasants held on to small plots of land and sold surplus

Politburo

the institution that had become the leading organ of the party after Lenin's death. Members were divided over the future direction of the natio . One side wanted to end the NEP and launch the SU on the path of rapid industrialization, wanted to carry on the Rev. Other side rejected the cause of the world revolution and watned to concentrate on construction of a socialist state

Joseph Stalin

Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953), Communist statesman; leader of Bolshevik Party; became ruler of USSR after Lenin; assumed full military and political leadership.

Stalin Vs. Trotsky

Trotsky: believed it was the USSR's duty to promote communism worldwide, criticized the NEP. Stalin: believed USSR should focus only on themselves (seen as more nationalistic), used Trotsky's criticism to make him appear disloyal

"socialism in one country"

a thesis put forth by Joseph Stalin in 1924, elaborated by Nikolai Bukharin in 1925 and finally adopted as state policy by Stalin. The thesis held that given the defeat of all communist revolutions in Europe from 1917-1921 except in Russia, the Soviet Union should begin to strengthen itself internally

Nikolai Bukharin

editor of Pravda and the main ideological voice for the right wing, a Communist Party faction who opposed Trotsky's drive for rapid industrialization in the 1920s. Bukharin supported Lenin's NEP. He and Stalin shared similar positions on economic development, but he was later forced off the Politburo when Stalin changed his policies in 1929. Under theGreat Purges, Bukharin confessed to political crimes and was convicted and executed

Comintern

was an international Communist organization founded in Moscow in March 1919. The International intended to fight "by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and for the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the State."

Five Year Plans

Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state. (781)

Collectivization Policy 1929

policy pursued under Stalin between 1928 and 1940. The goal of this policy was to consolidate individual land and labour into collective farms. The Soviet leadership was confident that the replacement of individual peasant farms by kolkhozy would immediately increase the food supply for urban populations, the supply of raw materials for processing industry, and agricultural exports.

Great Purges

Great offensive to build socialism and a new socialist personality...culminated in ruthless police terror and massive purging of the communist party.

Gulags

Forced labor camps set up by Stalin in easter Russia. Dissidents were sent to the camps, where conditions were generally brutal. Millions died.

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