Define Primary Health Promotion/Prevention
Activities provided to individuals to prevent the onset or acquisition of a given disease in order to spare individuals the suffering, burden, and cost.
Define Secondary Health Promotion/Prevention
Activities provided to identify and treat asymptomatic persons who have risk factors for a given disease.
Define Tertiary Prevention/Promotion
Measures that are part of the management of a person with an established disease to minimize disease associated complications.
Describe the PICR in Koch's postulates
Present in evey case of disease
Isolated and grown in pure culture
Causes disease when taken from pure culture & injected into host.
Reisolated from host.
A disorder with developmentally inappropriate inattention, inpulsivity and distractibility with or without hyperactivity
The enzymes in a virus that bore holes into the cell membrane of a host cell and allow Hemagglutnin to inject its protein inside.
Give an example of a Bactearial Bronchitis
Give some examples of Macrocytic anemia
Pernicious (vit B12) anemia
Folic Acid deficiency anemia
Give some Examples of Microcytic anemia
Iron deficiency anemia
Give some examples of Primary health promotion and prevention practices
Give some Examples of Secondary Health promotion/prevention practices
1. Screening exams: colonoscopy, mammogram, Pap test, etc.
2. Screening for clinical conditions during an asymptomatic period such as Labs (lipid profile) or BP screen.
Give some examples of Tertiary Prevention/Promotion
treatment aimed at improving or minimizing disease-related s/s
How would you treat Phase I GERD?
Intermittent mild lifestyle changes
Infections caused as a result of medical procedures which have a good potential to introduce microbes into patient tissues
List some characteristics of Bactearia
1. Can live on their own
2. Can synthesize their own DNA and RNA
4. Needs host to grow and replicate
5. Have cell walls
a. gram + thin cell wall
b. gram - have thick cell wall
List some characteristics of E. Coli gastroenteritis or "traveler's diarrhea
1. Watery diarrhea initially followed by blood, mucous streaking or grossly bloodied stools
2. abd pain
3. may or may not have fever
list some characteristics of Scarlet fever
1. caused by the group B hemolytic Strep pyogene
2. Short incubation period
3. rash caused by endotoxins from Strep
4. usually occurs in kids over 3 years of age
4. spread via droplet transmission
5. DX with throat culture
List some Characteristics of Viruses
2. have either DNA or RNA not both
3. Have to rely on host for protein synthesis and regeneration
4. Inserts itself into host cell and injects genetic matearial.
List some criteria why someone with a cough should be hospitalized.
1. toxic looking
4. Labored respirations
7. Nusing home resident
8. WBC's greater than 5000
9. TX failure
List some of the diagnostic features of Hyperactivity-Impulsivity in ADHD
1. Fidgets/squirms in seat
2. Leaves seat in classroom
3. Runs about or climbs wein inappropriate
4. difficulty playing quiet
5. Always on the go as if driven by a motor
6. Talks excessively
7. Blurts out answers before questions have been completed
8. has difficulty awaiting turn
9. Interrupts or intrudes on others
List some of the diagnostic features of Inattention in ADHD
1. Fails to give close attention to details, makes careless errors
2. Difficulty sustaining attention in work or play
3. Doesn't seem to listen
4. Cannot follow instructions, fails to complete work
5. Has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
6. Avoids tasks that require concentration (schoolwork)
7. loses things needed for tasks and activities (books, pencils)
8. Easily distracted by extraneous stimui
9. Forgetful in daily activities
List some side effects of Psychostimulant drugs (Concerta, Ritalin)
Headache, dysporia, loss of appetite, GI upset, Tics may occur
list the criteria in order for a pathogen to cause a disease
1. Contact the host (transmission)
2. Colonize, adhere and grow in host
3. Infect the host
4. Evade the host's defense system
4. Damage host tissues physically or chemically.
Name some clinical s/s of Community acquired MRSA tissue infections.
4. Pain or tenderness
5. Complaint of "pimple" or "spider bite" that won't go away.
The portion of the influenza virus that sticks to the hosts cell membrane
s/s of viral diarrha
Vomitting ( usually first symptom)
24 hours of a low grade temp
What are NOT causes of GERD in infants
1. Low pressures in the lower esophageal sphincter
2. developmental immaturity
What are some "red flags" with sinusitis?
periorbital edema/ periorbital erythema
2. facial edema/ facial erythema
3. Stiff neck
what are some common treatments for Scarlet Fever?
Clindamycin if recurrent
What are some diagnosis criteria for Kawasaki's DX?
1. Fever for more than 5 days
2. bilateral, painless, non exudative conjunctivitis
3. Cervical lymphadenopathy
4. Polymorphus Exanthema
5. Extremity changes(redness and swelling of hands and feet).
6. Lips, tongue are red, chapped and swollen (strawberry tongue).
What are some examples of blocking vehicle-mediated transmission?
1. water purification
2. effective cooking
3. prevention of food contamination with infectious agents
What are some normal factors causing reflux in infants?
1. small stomach capicity
2. overfeed large volumes
3. short esophageal length
4. supine position
5. slow swallowing response
What are some red flags with pharyngitis?
1. inability to swallow
3. Inability to open mouth
4. Stiff neck
5. H/O HIV+
What are some TX options for Otitis Externa?
1. Corticosporin drops (steroid and Antibiotic)
2. NSAIDS for pain
What are the "red flags" to watch for with someone with otitis media?
2. Stiff neck
3. sudden hearing loss
4. Post auricular swelling
5. TX failure in the past
What are the immunizations for the adolescent child?
2. Menectra (meningeococcal)
3. Gardisil (HPV)
What are the S/S of pyloric stenosis?
1. Non bilious projectile vomitting
2. ABD distention after feeding
3. "olive" type mass in upper quadrant on deep palpation
4. n/v wt loss and dehydration
5. prominent peristalsis waves from left to right may be seen.
what Imagery testing should be done if you suspect pyloric stenosis?
Barium upper GI and ABD ultrasound
what is the average age group effected by pyloric stenosis?
2 to 12 weeks of age
What is the most frequent cause of intestinal obstruction in the first 2 years of life?
What is the treatment for virus causing diarrhea?
Fluid and electrolyte replacement
What is the treatment of Kawasaki's DX? and why?
1. IV immunoglobulin
2. High dose ASA therapy
decreases the incidence of coronary artery dilation and aneurysm.
What other possible physical findings would you expect to find if your Diagnosis is Atypical Pneumonia?
Ear and Eye Pain
What other sign may be present with Mycoplasma Bronchitis?
Bullous Ear infection
What would be the treatment for a skin lesion and systemic MRSA
1. DRAIN and INCISE lesion
2. Antimicrobial therapy with MRSA coverage
such as Clindamycin and Doxycycline if pt. is hospitalized Vancomycin and Linezolid with Infectious disease consult .
When is antiviral TX for influenza recomended?
whithin 48 hours of symptoms