Important germanic tribe that unified the warring tribes after the fall of the Roman Empire. Eventually developed into the powerful Frankish Empire
Ruler of an early frankish tribe who went on to conquer and unify all of the frankish tribes and northern Gaul with his military skills. later was named King and worshipped and promoted Christianity w/ influence from wife. (had vision similar to constantine's)
Clovis' incompetent children/successors who split up the kingdom and left the business of governing to palace officials.
The mayor of the palace who ruled and united the Frankish empire after the unsuccessful Merovingians. He d id not however hold the title of king.
Charles Martel ("The Hammer")
Successor to Pepin II as mayor of the palace. he drove the Moors (Muslims) out of France at the Battle of Tours (in Tours, France). This halted the muslim advance in western europe, defending the prominence of Christianity. Had two sons, Carloman + Pepin III who shared power after his death in 741.
Pepin III ("The Short")
Son of Charles Martel. Shared power w/ brother carloman until carloman left for a monastery after six years. Was crowned "King by the grace of God" by pope in 751 and gained respect. Drove the Germanic Lombards out of Rome and donated conquered land to the church (Papal States) in Donation of Pepin. Began an alliance between the Church and the Franks and Carolingian Dynasty.
One of two sons of Charles Martel, instead of ruling the land left to him by his father, 6 years after Martels death he joined a Monastery.
A germanic tribe that ravaged central Italy and threatened Rome. Was driven out by Pepin's army.
Son of Pepin III who took Frankish throne from 768-814. He conquered Western Europe through his skilled military tactics. Wanted to recreate empire w/ same power and glory as Romans. Declared "Emperor of the Romans" in 800 by Pope Leo III. Established capital of Aix-La-Chapelle where tax-free government was held. He valued education and learning.
Royal officials under Charlemagne who traveled around the country to enforce the king's laws + listen to appeals of the public.
Standardized bible for Charlemagne's empire.
City of God
A book by St. Augustine that was loved by Charlemagne.
Treaty of Verdun
Signed in 843, the treaty divided the carolingian empire into three sections, which led to the eventual destruction of charlemagne's empire.
Eastern people that invaded central Europe and contributed to the downfall of the Frankish Empire.
Tribe from the east that terrorized europe and weakened the Frankish Empire until they settled down and established the kingdom of Hungary.
Scandinavian Madmen who plundered Europe in the middle ages. They had pagan beliefs and were brutally cruel and warlike. They had strange, violent customs such as a slave being strangled and stabbed at the death of thier master.
Viking went "a-viking" during the spring and summer to terrorize European towns.
A region in northern France along the English Channel; invaded and settled by Scandinavians (Noormans) in the 10th century.
A political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service.
A person who granted land to a vassal in the feudal system.
Recieved land from a lord in return for services (military) in the feudal system.
A grant of land in the feudal system.
Right of inheritance of a deceased lord's fiefs belongs exclusively to the eldest son. Kept order in the feudal system; fiefs were not constantly being subdivided among sons.
Trial by Battle
Feudal Justice trials where the accuser and the accused fought in a duel-->The outcome determined who was guilty and who was innocent.
Trial by Compurgation
Feudal Justice trials where the accused and accuser gathered people who swore by earth that they were telling to truth. Similar to witnesses in today's court.
Trial by Ordeal
feudal Justice trials where the accused carried hot iron in his hand or plunged hand into boiling water to pick up a hot stone. if the wounds healed rapidly, they were innocent, if not, they were guilty.
A man who received honor and land in exchange for serving a lord as a soldier. Knights carried a sword, shield, and lance, and wore armor or chain mail.
A shirt of small metal links that served as flexible armor. It was replaced by standards armor suits after the intorduction of gunpowder.
Peace of God
Decrees pertaining to feudal warfare that prohibited, under pain of excommunication, acts of violence and private warfare near churches and other holy buildings, forbade violence agaist cattle, agricultural equipment, clergy, women, merchants, and pilgrims.
Truce of God
Decrees pertaining to feaudal warfare that prohibited fighting forbidden on weekends and Holy Days.
The Manorial System
the Economic system of life in manors (small farming villages) that worked togethor with the feudal system.
A large estate, including farmland and villages, held by a lord. Served as self-sufficient towns; produced own food,clothing, leather. Purchased salt, iron, tar, and wine.
The plot of land on a manor owned by a lord. Usually about 1/3 of the manor. Peasants occupy other land, serving the lord w/ crops + taxes.
Manorial peasants who were not allowed to leave the land without permission. They were not slaves because they were not sold away.
The fortified home of a lord that served as a base to protect countryside and enforce authority. Medieval castles were usually not very impressive; simple structures made of earth and wood.
A water-filled ditch that surrounded a castle to resist attack. A drawbridge could fold down across the moat to allow entry to the castle.
The main tower within the walls of a medieval castle that contained storerooms, barracks and workshops. Sometimes it contained the lords living quarters.
Code of conduct for knights during the Middle Ages. It included to process of becoming a knight.
First step towards knighthood: At age 7, boy followed/ watched knightly living, learned manners
Second step towards knighthood: helped out knight w/ clothes, horses, armor, and weapons.Eventually accompanied knight into battle, was conidered a knight after proving self in battle.
Coat of Arms
A design of a particular family or group to help identify a knight.
Peasant origin/little formal education/bottom of hierarchy, but important, because he administered five of seven sacraments.
Holy ceremonies where participants recieved the grace of god.
Admission to christian community.
Admission to church membership.
Acts showing rpentance for sins.
Taking of Holy orders
Admission to priesthood.
Annointing of the sick and dying.
Spiritual manager of diocese. Selection of bishop made by nobles or king of region. They were often chosen because of family are feudal ties.
The territorial jurisdiction of a bishop. A collection of adjacent parishes.
Manager of an archdiocese and had powers of bishop, but controlled smaller dioceses and bishops within archdiocese.
Counselours and advisors to the pope.
Mambers of curia who advise pope on legal and spiritual matters and also elect pope.
A pope who was originally a slave, but was elected pope in 271.
Regular cergy who seperated themselves from the material world and lived under stricy rules (monks and nuns).
Italian monk who established a monastery at Monte Cassino and created benedictine rule -- a set of standards to regulate monastic life.
Elected head of a monastery.
A place where communities of monks live lives of devotion to God in isolation from the outside world.
Monks who travel to spread their religious beliefs.
Irish missionary, 432, brought schools and christianity to Ireland.
Became Archbishop of Canterbury, England, established center of religious learning in England.
The official body of rules that provides for good order in the Catholic Church.
Cutting an individual off from the church, used to punish rebels of church doctrines.
Exocommunication of an entire district, used to punish rebels of church doctrines.
A church tax; 10% of each member's annual income was given to church.
Kings and Nobles reward thier loyal friends by appointing them to religious positions.
People offer money to be appointed to church positions.
Rejection or questioning of church doctrines.
Franciscans and Dominicans
Religious groups that attempted church reform.
A search for heretics across europe, conducted by dominicans.
Two dominant germanic tribes in England after the fall of Rome. Established 3 main English kingdoms: Northumbria, Mercia, Wessex.
Subdivisions of England's kingdoms.
Alfred the Great
Took throne at Wessex and used military to drive out threatening danes. Also was skilled w/ literature. Wrote Anglo-Saxon Chronicles.
Written by ATG, first record of English history.
After England was retaken by the danes, King Canute expanded England greatly, merging it with Sandinavia.
Edward the Confessor
Cosen as king by the Anglo-Saxon nobles after the Danish line died out...he died childless and the thrown was taken by Duke William of Normandy, a distant relative, and later by his brother in law Harold of Wessex.
Duke William of Normandy (the conqueror)
Succeeded Edward the Confessor as King of England, but struggled to gain power, b/c he was Norman. English people wanted Harold of Wessex to rule. Defeated Harold, but struggled to have firm power. Reformed feudalism and established Domesday Book.
Harold of Wessex
Prefferred ruler of English people, but fought for power with William of Normandy. In Thier battle at Hastings, he was shot in the eye.
A survey used by William the Conquerer to keep track of population and wealth. (census)
Son of William the Conqueror, ruled 1100-1135, tried to weaken feudal system. Instituted exchequer system to keep track of kingdom's finances.
(1154-1189) Increased power of Royal Govt., reorganized exchequer and started circuit judges.
A branch of royal government that kept track of finance.
Traveling judges who enforced laws of king around the country.
The archbishop of Cantebury- He was murdered by knights because they thought they were doing it as orders of the king.
King of England who raised taxes and punished his enemies without a trial. He is best known for being forced to sign the Magna Carta.
A document written to resist King John's unjust treatment of nobles and of everyday people.
Simon De Monfort
Led the noble revolt against King Henry III and became king for several months, trying to broaden the Great Council by introducing knights.
Collection of middle class representatives who meet with higher class members and clergy.
House of Commons
Reformed Great Council where there were two houses.
Divided court system into three parts.
Law based on decisions in kings courts.
King of France elected in 987 and founding the Capetian dynasty (940-996).
Seized the english-owned land in France.
Philip the Fair
Took Control over church and issued taxes on clergy. Was able to manipulate church's power.
king of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor (912-973), was supported by the church and pope.
Henry III (German)
Allowed Holy Roman Empire to reach height, elected a german to the papacy.
Stern pope who used exocommunication to deal with troublesome leaders.
Believed that he had power to elect bishops, but was opposed and exocommunicated by Gregory . Henry IV then begged for mercy and his exocommunication was revoked.
Concordat of Worms
Agreement that settled lay investiture controversy. Stated that only church leaders could appoint church positions.
Greedy Holy Roman Emperor who used city-states for power and money. Was defeated by the Lombard League. Drowned in a river on his way to the third crusade.
Chain of united city-states who w/ help of pope, defeated corrupted barbarossa rule.
Pope Innocent III
Believed he was a surpreme ruler over everyone, brough papacy to it's height. he unified all of christendom except for Itlay and Germany.
A representative of of a district in Charlemagne's empire.
Warlike Muslims from central Asia who controlled Palestine.
Pope Urban II
Called for first crusade.
Expeditions to regain the holy land.
Successful. Led by French and Normans. Took control of palestine, and merged cultures w/ palestinians.
Turks recapture city of Edessa and eventually take Jerusalem.
King Richard, Philip II, Frederick Barbarossa team up to regain holy land, but Phil. and Fred. bail out, leaving Philip who proceeds to gain a few coastal towns in palestine.
A Crusade from 1202 to 1204 that was diverted into a battle for Constantinople and failed to recapture Jerusalem.
A Christian city on the Atlantic coast that was attacked during the fourth crusade by the French Army.
The Children's Crusade
In 1212 a group of young children believed they could triumph where their elders had failed. They undertook their own march to the Holy Land. Most children where sold into slavery some of them where only told to turn back.
Area on the Northwest coast of Europe (Current-day Belgium) that became the earliest Atlantic trading center. It was the meeting point of several trade routes and became the textile headquarters of Europe.
An organization of cities in northern Germany and southern Scandinavia for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance.
Local sites that trade goods could be sold at. They didn't catch on and were replaced by Fairs.
Gatherings of merchants sponsored by local nobles or churchmen. They included protection of goods and security in return for a trade tax.
Region in Northeastern France that held Europe's biggest fairs.
System in which one set of goods or services is exchanged for another.
People who worked at fairs to estimate the value of currencies of one region in relation to currencies of other regions.
Early industrial labor system in which workers produced goods at home. Ex: Person sells wool, pays neighbors to make wool, collect wool and sell for a profit.
Like money changers who evaluate different currencies, but began to offer other services as well.
The act of lending money at an exorbitant rate of interest.
People who lend money to others with interest charges.
Wealth earned, saved, and invested to create profits.
Economy in which land, labor, and capital are controlled by individuals. Formed basis of modern day capitalism.
First right of townspeople: people, no matter what background they have, were granted a chance to become free, breaking ties with lords and manors.
Second right of townspeople: people did not have to perform services on manors.
Third right of townspeople: people have right to sell and trade goods freely at town market.
Associations of merchants to travel and trade safely. They supported widows and struggling children by giving out loans. Eventually, they gained monopolies.
Exclusive control of the trade in certain areas.
Guilds that had a single craft and they set rules for wages, hours, work conditions, and quality of work.
Apprentice (craft guilds)
First step in joining a craft guild. Boys would pay hefty fees to learn skills of an artisan at a certain craft.
Skilled artisan worker wjo was payed to help a master.
Master at a certain craft who owned a shop or factory. Mastership was usually inherited by primogeniture.
A member of the middle class.
The Black Death
By 1348, this disease ravaged from Italy, Spain, and France to the rest of Europe; transmitted by fleas on rats; considered an epidemic; one in three people died; spread from Asia to middle east; people turned to witchcraft for cures; some beat themselves because they considered the disease God's punishment; Christians blamed Jews; production declined; higher wages; inflation.
Fleas of diseased rats bit humans and transmitted deadly bacteria. Not contagious.
Fleas from diseased rats attacked lung of humans. Contagious.
Everyday speech that varies from place to place. Included early forms of German, French, English.
Traveling performers singing about chivalry deeds performed by knights for ladies.
The Song of Roland
National epic of France in time of Charlemagne, sung about chivalry.
an epic poem written in Middle High German and based on the legend of Siegfried and the war between the Huns and Burgundians.
Works of prose fiction that were popular among medieval audiences. (King Arthur and knights of the round table).
Romance of the Rose
A popular Romance about love by Guillaume de Lorris.
Short comic stories in rhymed voice. mocked the lofty ideals of chivalry, ridiculed human foolishness, criticized clergy.
Reynard the Fox
A popular fable.
"Noah's Flood"- a drama about Noah's Ark.
A poet who used Tuscan dialects in his writing. he is today recognized as the father of modern Italian. Wrote "The Divine Comedy".
The Divine Comedy
Long poem by Daunte, written in 3 parts, goes to hell, purgatory with virgil, and is guided through heaven by Beatrice of Florence. written in vernacular(italian).
An English poet who poked fun at English society and satirized the clergy. Wrote in Middle English and added prestige to the language. Famous Work=The Canterbury Tales.
The Canterbury Tales
Series of short stories written by Chaucer. Chaucer follows a band of English pilgrims traveling to Thomas Becket's tomb.
"An association of people"-guilds formed by teachers and students to gain privileges and protection for learning purposes.
University of Bologna
Taught civil and church law (canon).
University at Salerno
Specialized in medicine.
marked the stages of ahievment of students at universities.
Bachelor of Arts
Showed that a student had completed apprenticeship.
Master of Arts
After extensive study on certain topic, student was declared a master and could begin teaching.
Attempt by medieval philosophers to reconcile church's faith with Aristotle's reason.
Scholastic philosopher who criticized church in his book "Sic et Non".
Sic Et Non
(Yes and No) created by Abelard 150 theological issues and by presenting passages from the bible and the church fathers he showed that there were conficition opinions.
Scholastic writer who is remembered for his attempt to reconcile faith and reason in a comprehensive theology. Wrote Summa Theologaie.
Work by Aquinas that summarized points of the church doctrines and explained how each claim could be proven using logic and reason. is today's basis for theology in Roman Catholic schools.
Architechture that resembled the same method and techniques used by the Romans; vaults, arches, domes, low horizontal lines.
New Style of Architechture inspired by barbarian Goths -- had towering spires, flying buttresses, large stained-glass windows, stautes of important figures.
Ribbed v aults that supported gothic churches.
The feeling of loyalty and belonging to a country as a whole.
The Hundred Years War
Collection of conflicts between England and France during 1337-1451. began w/ power struggle between Edward III and Philip VI
Bow with long range that helped England in the Hundred Years War.
The wars of the Roses
Fight for English throne between York and Lancaster families.
(Lancaster) Ended the wars of the roses by defeating King Richard (Yorkist) in 1485. He became Henry VII, founder of the tudor dynasty.
Joan of Arc
16 year old peasant girl who led french army to victory over the english in the Hundred Year's War. Also got Charles VII to take throne. Was captured and convicted as a heretic by English, then burned at the stake.
French government assembly that modeled the English Parliament.
French king who strengthened the French monarchy using diplomacy rather than war. Was nicknamed "Universal Spider".
Ferdinand of Aragon
Married Isabelle of Castile to make first step towards unifying spanish kingdoms.
Isabelle of Castile
Married Ferdinand of Aragon to make first step towards unifying spanish kingdoms.
Dominant rulers of the Holy Roman Empire (1200-1500) but could not unify the area.
Pope Boniface VIII
Oppoosed Philip IV's idea of tax on clergy members. Declared his supremacy over all tmporal rulers. Died soon after Philip IV accused him of Simony and Heresy.
Pope Boniface VIII's decree that deckared him supreme over temporal rulers.
Believed that clergy members should pay tax. Bickered w/ Pope Boniface VIII.
The Babylonian Captivity
(1309-1377) the papal capital was moved from Rome to Avignon and the papacy was reserved for franks. Weakened church authority.
The Great Schism
Papacy returned to Rome by Gregory XI, but french Pope Clement VII remained at Avignon. Chuch splits up (1378-1417). Weakened church authority.
The Council of Constance
Church leaders met at Constance to resolve the great Schism.
Defender of the Peace
Influential work by Marsilius of Padua and John of Jandun. Stated that the pope only had religious powers, contradictory to beliefs of Boniface VIII.
Member of clergy and professor at oxford, attacked wealth and immortslity of church. Believed that Bible needed to have ultimate power, not pope/church. Translated Bilbe from Latin to English.
Inspired by Wycliffe, rector at University of Prague. Denounced abuses of the church and was exocommunicated. Later was burned at the stake.