Created the seed drill which reduced the energy required to work and prevented a large portion of fallow land. This in turn allowed more food to be produced.
England's Parliament closed off community land which disrupted smaller communities. Small laborers were forced to become wage laborers or tenant farmers. This led to the growth of cottage industries.
Corn and Potatoes were introduced into the diets of Europeans.
Turnips and clover, easy to plant and harvest, they also returned nutrients back to the soil as they grew, increasing productivity.
Bakewell took a scientific approach to breeding, challenging the Enlightenment views of nature governing itself. He found that you could choose the most desirable traits of animals and breed them.
The Netherlands increased their production due to meadow floating.
A new farming technique that needed the enclosure movement to work.
The first country to industrialize, and the first industry to industrialize was the textile industry.
Why did the Revolutions of 1848 begin?
Conflict in Italy that spread to France and eventually to the rest of continental Europe.
What caused the conflict in the Revolutions?
There was widespread dissatisfaction with the treatment of the lower class, several major crop failures, Nationalistic and middle class revolts, and failed attempts to unite Germany and Italy.
About how many revolutions were there?
Somewhere near 50 individual revolutions occurred.
What changed after the Revolutions?
Nothing much changed as there was a desire to get back to where Europe had been before. The most noticeable change was the end of a Monarchy in France.
What caused the Revolution in France?
Distaste with the king, Louis Phillipe, who was serving the interests of the upper classes all the while ignoring the demands of the middle and lower classes.
The Bourgeois king, elected by the middle class in hopes that he would help them gain representation.
What were the banquets?
Assemblies held in protest to Louis Phillipe which eventually led to rioting, and then on to revolt.
What happened after Louis Phillipe's resignation?
A provisional government was set up in the absence of a king.
Who led this provisional government?
Two leaders; Lamartine, a liberalist, and Louis Blanc, a socialist.
What did the provisional government do?
Not much other than declaring the 2nd republic and electing a second National Assembly. The middle class was still upset with the government and continued to revolt. Eventually a Conservative government was set up.
What caused the revolution in Austria?
The king's assistant Metternich was highly Conservative and in March of 1898, there were several revolts over his Conservative hand in the government. He eventually resigned.
Who was Louis Kossuth?
The self proclaimed ruler of Hungary who demanded Hungarian independence and caused several disturbances in Vienna.
What did Ferdinand I do to staunch the revolts?
Attempted to order his army to quell the revolts, but when they refused, he was forced to try to meet the demands of the people. He promised a Liberal constitution, but to no avail. After weighing his choices, he left Vienna.
What happened after Ferdinand I left?
The government he left behind abolished the robot, calming the lower class but not the middle class.
Who was Franz Joseph?
The last Hapsburg, born in 1848 and died in 1916.
What happened in Italy during the Revolutions?
The king of Piedmont, Charles Albert, saw opportunity in Austria's "weakness" and attempted to gain control over Austrian controlled territory in Italy. He failed.
Sought progress in trade (free trade) and in the rights of citizens (legal equality, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and voting). Tolerated Religion as a means of progress.
Mainly summarized by the concept "Throne, land, altar." Several displays of Conservatism were the Congress of Vienna and the Concert of Europe. The most common -ism in Europe.
The middle ground between Conservatism and Liberalism. A Moderate example was the Reform Bill of 1832.
Extreme Conservatism, the Ultra Royalists believed in the traditional Absolute Monarch principal of "One king, one law, and one faith." A good example was Charles X.
Wanted Parliamentary reform. Their example was the Chartist movement and the People's Charter.
Represented the urban workers.
Constantly focused on class struggle and revolution.
Fit all of the descriptions of the other Isms. At any time, Nationalism could be Marxism, Socialism, Chartism, Moderatism, Liberalism, or Conservatism. Still in effect today.
What were the challenges to the Conservative order in England?
The Peterloo massacre, Chartism, Combination Acts, The Reform Bill of 1832, and William Wilberforce's attack on the slave trade.
What was the Peterloo Massacre?
What began as a peaceful gathering of Chartists to listen to Parliamentary reform speeches, the British Cavalry swept down upon the crowd and murdered 80,000 people.
Who were the Chartists?
People who sought Parliamentary reform. They advocated a People's Charter.
What was the People's Charter?
The right to vote for men, secret ballots, abolition of the property requirements for the House of Commons, salaries for the House of Commons, equal electoral districts, and annual elections. Out of all of these, the last one was the only one never passed.
What were the Combination Acts?
Parliament's decree that there could be no workers organizations or labor unions.
What was the Reform Bill of 1832?
Encouraged the reform of political policies and strengthened the industrial and commercial elite in towns.
What were the challenges to the Conservative order in Russia?
The Pugachev revolt and Poland.
What was the Pugachev Revolt?
A revolt over the freedom of peasants and slaves.
Why was Poland a challenge to the Conservative order?
They revolted and encouraged the liberation of slaves in Italy and Germany.
What were the challenges to the Conservative order in The German Confederacy?
The Zollverein, the Burschenschafen, the Carlsbad Decrees, and the Frankfurt Assembly.
What was the Zollverein?
An alliance of smaller states in a Nationalist display.
What was the Burschenschafen?
Student association displaying Nationalist properties in that it's job was to sever provincial loyalties and replace them with loyalty to a united German state.
What were the Carlsbad Decrees?
Decrees in an attempt to root out any Napoleonic sympathies in the German Confederacy.
What was the Frankfurt Assembly?
A Nationalist display in a attempt to unite Germany.
What were the Nationalist concerns of Europe?
Southern Belgium did not want to be part of the Netherlands and demanded independence in 1830, and because of this display, both Greece and Italy demanded independence.
Who was Robert Owen?
A factory owner who encouraged a Socialist workplace by providing housing for his workers and education for their children, paying higher wages, and providing a better work environment.
Who was Henri de St. Simon?
The father of the Technocracy who saw women and men as equal.
Who was Charles Fourier
Created the Phalanx, a Socialist community in which people met to discuss Socialist principals.
Who was Louis Blanc?
A man who advocated the creation of workshops for workers.
Who was Flora Tristan?
Advocated the equality of women and workers palaces.
Who was Karl Marx?
The father of Marxism, a system that advocated the protection of the lower classes.
What was the Congress of Vienna?
A celebration of the defeat of Napoleon in Vienna, hosted by Metternich, Austria's Foreign Minister.
What were the goals of the Nobility in the Congress of Vienna?
To create a balance of power, to create compensation, to instigate legitimacy, and to keep France passive.
Who was Castelreigh?
The Foreign Minister of Great Britain.
Who was Talleyrand?
The Foreign Minister of France.
Who was Alexander I?
The Tsar of Russia.
Who was Hardenburg?
The Foreign Minister of Prussia.
What were the gains of Austria?
Lost the Austrian Netherlands and gained Venetia and Lombardy.
What were the gains of Genoa?
The Kingdom of Sardinia.
What were the gains of Prussia?
Land along the Rhine river.
What were the gains of Russia?
What were the gains of Sweden?
Lost Finland and gained Norway.
What were the gains of Great Britain?
Ceylon, Cape of Good Hope, Trinidad & Tobago.
What was the Holy Alliance?
An alliance proposed by Alexander I of Russia between Russia, Prussia, and Austria.
What was the Quadruple alliance?
An alliance proposed by Castelreigh of Great Britain between Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia.
What was the Quintuple alliance?
Proposed by Aix La Chapelle of France between France, Austria, Great Britain (who would later leave this and the Quintuple alliance), Russia, and Prussia.
What happened in Verona?
The Quintuple alliance asked France to quell a revolution in Spain.
Who was Louis XVIII?
The king of France between 1814-1824. He created the Charter.
What was the Charter?
Created the Chamber of Deputes, allowed freedom of the press, allowed freedom of religion, and advocated that landowners were to be returned their land.
Who was the Count of Artois?
Louis XVIII's brother, an Ultra Royalist. His son was murdered, giving him the excuse needed to prove to his brother that more action needed to be taken. Eventually became king after his brother. (Charles X)
Who was Charles X?
Also known as the Count of Artois, he restored Primogeniture, executed anyone who committed sacrilegious acts, and paid off landowners who lost land during the revolution. He repealed the Charter that Louis XVIII had set in place.
Who was Louis Phillipe?
Ruled as the King of the French during the 1830's Revolution. He adopted the constitution as a right of the people, adopted the revolutionary flag, abolished censorship, and widened the vote (franchise). He was also known as the Bourgeois Monarch