Sociology - Real World - Ch 10: Social Institutions

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The Real World 3E

527 committees

Organizations that have no official connection to a candidate but that raise and spend funds like a campaign does; named after the section of the tax code that authorizes their existence (page 294)

authoritarianism

System of government by and for a small number of elites that does not include representation of ordinary citizens (page 287)

authority

The legitimate, noncoercive exercise of power (page 287)

belief

A proposition or idea held on the basis of faith (page 311)

charter schools

Public schools run by private entities to give parents greater control over their children's education (page 306)

community college

Two-year institution that provides students with general education and facilitates transfer to a four-year university (page 310)

democracy

A political system in which all citizens have the right to participate (page 288)

disenfranchised

stripped of voting rights, either temporarily or permanently (page 290)

early college high schools

Institutions in which students earn a high school diploma and two years of credit toward a bachelor's degree (page 307)

education

The process by which a society transmits its knowledge, values, and expectations to its members so they can function effectively (page 301)

evangelical

A term describing conservative Christians who emphasize converting others to their faith (page 316)

extrinsic religiosity

A person's public display of commitment to a religious faith (page 313)

Fourth Estate

The media, which are considered like a fourth branch of government (after the executive, legislative, and judiciary) and thus serve as another of the checks and balances on power (page 294)

fundamentalism

The practice of emphasizing literal interpretation of texts and a "return" to a time of greater religious purity; represented by the most conservative group within any religion (page 315)

government

The formal, organized agency that exercises power and control in modern society, especially through the creation and enforcement of laws (page 287)

hidden curriculum

Values or behaviors that students learn indirectly over the course of their schooling because of the structure of the educational system and the teaching methods used (page 303)

homeschooling

The education of children by their parents, at home (page 307)

intrinsic religiosity

A person's inner religious life or personal relationship to the divine (page 313)

liberation theology

A movement within the Catholic Church to understand Christianity from the perspective of the poor and oppressed, with a focus on fighting injustice (page 312)

monarchy

A government ruled by a king or queen, with succession of rulers kept within the family (page 288)

monotheistic

A term describing religions that worship a single divine figure (page 312)

online education

Any educational course or program in which the teacher and the student meet via the internet, rather than meeting physically in a classroom (page 310)

opinion leaders

High-profile individuals whose interpretation of events influences the public (page 296)

pluralist model

A system of political power in which a wide variety of individuals and groups have equal access to resources and the mechanisms of power (page 292)

political action committee (PAC)

An organization that raises money to support the interests of a select group or organization (page 293)

politics

methods and tactics intended to influence government policy, policy-related attitudes, and activities (page 287)

power

The ability to impose one's will on others (page 287)

power elite

A relatively small group of people in the top ranks of economic, political, and military institutions who make many of the important decisions in American society (page 292)

profane

The ordinary, mundane, or everyday (page 311)

religion

Any institutionalized system of shared beliefs and rituals that identify a relationship between the sacred and the profane (page 311)

religiosity

The regular practice of religious beliefs, often measured in terms of frequency of attendance at worship services and the importance of religious beliefs to an individual (page 313)

ritual

A practice based on religious beliefs (page 311)

sacred

The holy, divine, or supernatural (page 311)

school vouchers

Payments from the government to parents whose children attend failing public schools; the money helps parents pay private school tuition (page 309)

secular

Nonreligious; a secular society separates church and state and does not endorse any religion (page 316)

simulacrum

An image or media representation that does not reflect reality in any meaningful way but is treated as real (page 298)

social institutions

systems and structures within society that shape the activities of groups and individuals (page 286)

special interest groups

organizations that raise and spend money to influence elected officials and/or public opinion (page 293)

tracking

The placement of students in educational "tracks," or programs of study (e.g., college prep, remedial), that determine the types of classes students take (page 303)

unchurched

A term describing those who consider themselves spiritual but not religious and who often adopt aspects of various religious traditions (page 316)

all of the profs are white and heterosexual

Which of the following is an example of how the hidden curriculum can reinforce inequality?

Evangelicals emphasize the importance of gaining new converts

Why is it not surprising that Evangelical Protestants are the most common religious affiliation in the United States?

simulacrum

What does Jean Baudrillard call an image in the media that people can no longer distinguish from the reality that it is supposed to represent?

the power elite

According to C. Wright Mills, who rules America?

new media or web 2.0

Politicians using Twitter to communicate with their constituents and hear back from them directly is an example of________

special interest groups

Organizations formed expressly to raise and spend money in order to influence elected officials are called:

the profane

Within the Christian religion, certain days (Sundays), books (the Christian Bible), and objects (crucifixes) are treated differently than other days, books, and objects. Chapter 10 would say that this different treatment is needed to separate them from:

they are social institutions

What do schools, churches, and governments all have in common?

the hidden curriculum

Sociologists like R. S. Erickson have noted that "the informal and decidedly antidemocratic set of teaching practices and power relationships by which the school operates" produces a "disjuncture between the democratic creed and what actually goes on in school" so students often learn that it's important to take orders and to not make waves. What concept is Erickson talking about?

Home schooled

__________ students perform significantly better, on average, than public school students.

extrinsic religiosity

Attending religious services would be an example of ___________

Randall Collins

_________ recommend that to reform the American educational system it should be illegal for employers to ask about educational credentials.

vouchers give more choice for parents and their children's educational options

Which of the following is an advantage cited by supporters of school vouchers?

power; authorith

Robert is walking down the street late at night in New York City when a man in a ski mask suddenly sticks a gun in his face and takes his wallet. Sociologists would say that Robert's mugger had ____________ but not ____________.

the extent of a person's commitment to a religion

What is religiosity

a special interest group

The Swift Vets and POWs for Truth was a group of veterans and former prisoners of war from the Vietnam War who formed during the 2004 presidential campaign in order to oppose John Kerry's candidacy for president, primarily by attacking his record of military service. What could they be called?

both extrinsic and intrinsic religiosity

A large-scale, longitudinal study of students in America found that those who pick a major in the humanities or social sciences attended religious services less often and rated religion as being less important in their lives than students who picked either education or science majors. What were the researchers trying to measure?

Randall Collins

_______ argued that the true function of schools is to reproduce the class structure, making sure that most people grow up to have a socioeconomic status similar to their parents.

giving meaning to our lives

Ecclesiastes, in the Hebrew Bible, often strikes people as very depressing because it implies that life is pointless, but others take something of value from this book and feel that it shows that life and suffering are beyond human comprehension, but must be enjoyed anyway. Which function or dysfunction of religion does Ecclesiastes fulfill for those who value it?

disenfranchisement

What is it called when a government bars an individual, either temporarily or permanently, from voting?

unofficial requirement

In 2008 the Obama family's search for a church to attend in Washington, D.C., was big news. A sociological analysis of the national curiosity about the president's church might argue that being a Christian is an _____________ of the presidency.

disenfranchised

Puerto Rico is a self-governing republic, but is ultimately under the control of the U.S. government. Since 1917 all Puerto Ricans are U.S. citizens, but are not represented in Congress and cannot cast ballots in presidential elections. In this sense they are:

Nixon refused to take advice on hair, makeup, and clothing that would make him look better on camera.

When John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon debated during the 1960 presidential campaign, voters who watched the debate on television were more likely to see Kennedy as the winner than those who listened to it on radio. Why?

Jonathan Kozol

According to Savage Inequalities by ___________, schools reinforce inequality by using local property taxes to fund public schools, trapping poor children in poor schools.

They believe that vouchers will drain funds from vulnerable public schools and cause them to deteriorate further.

Why do critics object to vouchers?

the rise of the internet

What development transformed and expanded the role of distance learning in the American educational system?

the New York Times

In 1971 Daniel Ellsberg, working for the Department of Defense, found himself in possession of a large collection of classified documents that showed many members of the U.S. government did not believe that the Vietnam War was winnable, despite public assertions to the contrary. Ellsberg felt it was his patriotic duty to do something about this, and he turned to the Fourth Estate, giving the documents to:

law, theology, medicine

What subjects were taught in European universities during the Middle Ages?

rewards style over substance

In 2009, shortly after Sarah Palin resigned as Governor of Alaska, a Republican political strategist asked, "If Sarah Palin looked like Golda Meir, would we even be talking about her today?" No matter what else you might say about this quote, it reminds us that politics today:

authoritarian

Manuel Noriega was never elected president of Panama, but became its de facto ruler when he became head of the army and thus powerful enough to demand the resignation of the elected president. Given only this information, what was Noriega's government?

we are both a secular and a nonsecular society at the same time

The former Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor voted to allow a Christmas display on public property that included a nativity scene, but voted to prohibit city governments from having displays that had only a nativity scene. This indicates that:

Randall Collins, The Credential Society

What is the most likely source of the following quote:
American medical training is attached at the end of a very long and expensive education that keeps the supply of physicians low and their incomes and social backgrounds very high. This formal education appears to have little real practical relevance; most actual training is done on the job in the most informal circumstances, through the few years of internship
and residency.

social institutions

Systems and structures that persist over time and help to organize group life are called:

they were extraordinarily unhappy places

What was Jonathan Kozol's impression of the poorly funded schools that he visited in urban Chicago?

the U.S. is not a totally secular society

The fact that school schedules are organized around Christmas is evidence:

teacher attitudes

What variable would account for the dramatic jump in test scores evidenced by the students in Rosenthal and Jacobson's Pygmalion in the Classroom?

the profane

Within the Christian religion, certain days (Sundays), books (the Christian Bible), and objects (crucifixes) are treated differently than other days, books, and objects. Chapter 10 would say that this different treatment is needed to separate them from:

They want to keep the number of potential job applicants down, thus minimizing competition and ensuring that there is a large number of people for less lucrative, less pleasant professions.

According to Randall Collins, why do members of lucrative professions like law and medicine support the current educational system?

the hidden curriculum

Sociologists like R. S. Erickson have noted that "the informal and decidedly antidemocratic set of teaching practices and power relationships by which the school operates" produces a "disjuncture between the democratic creed and what actually goes on in school" so students often learn that it's important to take orders and to not make waves. What concept is Erickson talking about?

the rise of the internet

What development transformed and expanded the role of distance learning in the American educational system?

sound bytes

Short sentences or phrases on a political subject designed to be catchy and memorable, but not necessarily to convey much information, are called:

being a Christian is an unofficial requirement for being U.S. President

In 2008 the Obama family's search for a church to attend in Washington, D.C., was big news. A sociological analysis of the national curiosity about the president's church might argue that:

the hidden curriculum

John Dewey, an American educational reformer, once wrote, "Perhaps the greatest of all pedagogical fallacies is that a person learns only the particular thing he is studying at the time. Collateral learning in the way of formation of enduring attitudes, of likes and dislikes, may be and often is, more important." What is another term for what Dewey calls "collateral learning?"

Nixon refused to take advice on hair, makeup, and clothing that would make him look better on camera

When John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon debated during the 1960 presidential campaign, voters who watched the debate on television were more likely to see Kennedy as the winner than those who listened to it on radio. Why?

Unlike candidates or political parties, there are no limits on how much money an individual can give to them

Why are 527 committees much more important to political campaigns now than they were in the past?

It should be illegal for employers to ask about educational credentials.

What does the sociologist Randall Collins recommend to reform the American educational system?

the profance

Within the Christian religion, certain days (Sundays), books (the Christian Bible), and objects (crucifixes) are treated differently than other days, books, and objects. Chapter 10 would say that this different treatment is needed to separate them from:

opinion leaders

High-profile individuals who interpret political information and influence the voting habits of the public are called:

authoritarian

Manuel Noriega was never elected president of Panama, but became its de facto ruler when he became head of the army and thus powerful enough to demand the resignation of the elected president. Given only this information, what was Noriega's government?

unchurched

In "The Promise and Limits of Secular Spirituality in Cascadia," Mark Shibley wrote about people who feel more connected to their spirituality when they are in a forest. What are these people known as?

spin doctor

Mike McCurry was the White House Press Secretary from 1995 to 1998. It was his job to field questions from the press and explain the president's policies and attitudes in language that was compelling and persuasive. According to this job description, he could be called a(n):

Homeschooled students perform significantly better, on average, than public school students.

How does the academic achievement of homeschooled students compare to that of public school students?

social institutions

Systems and structures that persist over time and help to organize group life are called:

both intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity

A large-scale, longitudinal study of students in America found that those who pick a major in the humanities or social sciences attended religious services less often and rated religion as being less important in their lives than students who picked either education or science majors. What were the researchers trying to measure?

rewards style over substance

n 2009, shortly after Sarah Palin resigned as Governor of Alaska, a Republican political strategist asked, "If Sarah Palin looked like Golda Meir, would we even be talking about her today?" No matter what else you might say about this quote, it reminds us that politics today:

They believe that vouchers will drain funds from vulnerable public schools and cause them to deteriorate further.

Why do critics object to school vouchers?

unchurched

In "The Promise and Limits of Secular Spirituality in Cascadia," Mark Shibley wrote about people who feel more connected to their spirituality when they are in a forest. What are these people known as?

sound bytes

Short sentences or phrases on a political subject designed to be catchy and memorable, but not necessarily to convey much information, are called:

sound bytes

When Congress recessed in August of 2009, it was hotly debating a bill to overhaul America's health care system. The House Republican leader John Boehner sent rank-and-file Republicans a memo asking them to use "new media" like Twitter to get their message out. Given that a Twitter post can only be 140 characters long, what feature of modern politics closely resembles Twitter posts?

What did C.Wright Mills mean by the power elite?

a small group of people who occupy key positions in political, economic, and military institutions

the power elite

A sociologist tells you that she believes that "the owners and top-level managers in large income-producing properties are far and away the dominant power figures in the United States" as "their corporations, banks, and agribusinesses come together as a corporate community that dominates the federal government." What concept is being described here?

religion provides morals, values, rules and norms for participants

In the Sermon on the Mount, in the Christian New Testament, believers are told, "Whatever you want men to do to you, do also to them." Which of the functions or dysfunctions of religion does this remind you of?

2 percent

Before 1900, approximately what percentage of Americans graduated from high school?

authority

A police officer stops you for driving 73 mph in a 65-mph zone and gives you a ticket that costs $150. This means you will have less money than you did before you were stopped, just as you would if you had been mugged. If you go home and mail a check, then you are acknowledging that, unlike a mugger, the police officer has:

the power elite

According to C. Wright Mills, who rules America?

sound bytes

Short sentences or phrases on a political subject designed to be catchy and memorable, but not necessarily to convey much information, are called:

power; authority

Robert is walking down the street late at night in New York City when a man in a ski mask suddenly sticks a gun in his face and takes his wallet. Sociologists would say that Robert's mugger had ____________ but not ____________.

authoritarian

Kim Jong Il inherited control of North Korea from his father, Kim Il Sung. Both men ruled the country in absolute terms, to the extent that when North Koreans do manage to escape the country, which they are not legally allowed to leave, they are shocked to discover that the history they have been taught is full of distortions and lies. What type of government does North Korea have?

Unlike candidates or political parties, there are no limits on how much money an individual can give to them.

Why are 527 committees much more important to political campaigns now than they were in the past?

the New York Times

In 1971 Daniel Ellsberg, working for the Department of Defense, found himself in possession of a large collection of classified documents that showed many members of the U.S. government did not believe that the Vietnam War was winnable, despite public assertions to the contrary. Ellsberg felt it was his patriotic duty to do something about this, and he turned to the Fourth Estate, giving the documents to:

the importance of presenting a 'telegenic' image

In 1988 Michael Dukakis, the Democratic nominee for President, visited a General Dynamics plant and posed for a photo in an M1 tank. He hoped that the pictures from this staged event would make him seem stronger on defense issues, but instead many people felt that he looked silly, and his opponents used the image in their ads. This demonstrates:

it creates social solidarity

The adhan is the Islamic call to prayer, recited five times each day. This means that, in theory, five times each day every Muslim is doing the exact same thing at the exact same time. What function or dysfunction of religion does the adhan help to bring about?

dysfunction of religion because it promotes sexism

"Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as unto the Lord. For the husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the head of the church." Many people still look to passages from the Christian Bible like this one to justify gender roles. This may be a:

crisis

The America's educational system is in _____ because
a. Literacy rates are low.
b. Standardized test scores are lower than in other industrialized countries.
c. Teachers are poorly paid.
d. School infrastructure is in poor condition.

disenfranchisement

What is it called when a government bars an individual, either temporarily or permanently, from voting?

the hidden curriculum

Sociologists like R. S. Erickson have noted that "the informal and decidedly antidemocratic set of teaching practices and power relationships by which the school operates" produces a "disjuncture between the democratic creed and what actually goes on in school" so students often learn that it's important to take orders and to not make waves. What concept is Erickson talking about?

Nixon refused to take advice on makeup, clothing and hair

When John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon debated during the 1960 presidential campaign, voters who watched the debate on television were more likely to see Kennedy as the winner than those who listened to it on radio. Why?

lessons that students learn indirectly through the method in which the curriculum is presented and the way that the school is organized

What is the hidden curriculum?

randomly

In their Pygmalion in the Classroom, how did Jacobson and Rosenthal select the students they identified as ready to academically "bloom" in the coming school year?

opinion leaders

High-profile individuals who interpret political information and influence the voting habits of the public are called:

totalitarianism

What is it called when a government seeks to control every aspect of life?

disenfranchised

Puerto Rico is a self-governing republic, but is ultimately under the control of the U.S. government. Since 1917 all Puerto Ricans are U.S. citizens, but are not represented in Congress and cannot cast ballots in presidential elections. In this sense they are:

giving meaning to our lives

Ecclesiastes, in the Hebrew Bible, often strikes people as very depressing because it implies that life is pointless, but others take something of value from this book and feel that it shows that life and suffering are beyond human comprehension, but must be enjoyed anyway. Which function or dysfunction of religion does Ecclesiastes fulfill for those who value it?

lessons that students learn indirectly through the method in which the curriculum is presented and the way that the school is organized

How does the textbook define the hidden curriculum?

Teachers, under pressure to raise test scores, may stop doing everything but "teaching to the test."

What is a criticism of the No Child Left Behind Act, passed by Congress in 2002?

a system of beliefs and rituals that establish a relationship between the sacred and the profane

According to the textbook, what do all religions have in common?

They believe that vouchers will drain funds from vulnerable public schools and cause them to deteriorate further.

Why do critics object to school vouchers?

they are all social institutions

What do schools, churches, and governments all have in common?

both intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity

A large-scale, longitudinal study of students in America found that those who pick a major in the humanities or social sciences attended religious services less often and rated religion as being less important in their lives than students who picked either education or science majors. What were the researchers trying to measure?

authority

A police officer stops you for driving 73 mph in a 65-mph zone and gives you a ticket that costs $150. This means you will have less money than you did before you were stopped, just as you would if you had been mugged. If you go home and mail a check, then you are acknowledging that, unlike a mugger, the police officer has:

Evangelicals emphasize the importance of gaining new converts

Why is it not surprising that Evangelical Protestants are the most common religious affiliation in the United States?

For the first time, the turnout rate was based on eligible voters, as opposed to all residents of voting age.

For which of the following reasons could the supposed increase in voter turnout in the 2004 election really be just an artifact of the way that voter turnout is measured?

tracking

When students are tested, and the test results are used to place them in a certain category of classes (remedial, advanced, college prep, etc.), this process is called:

pluralism

In Who Governs, Robert Dahl examined the way that power was distributed in New Haven, Connecticut, and concluded that a wide variety of actors played a role in the political decision-making process, which he believed was largely divorced from economic influence. What theory of power does Dahl believe in?

by using local property taxes to fund public schools, trapping poor children in poor schools

According to Savage Inequalities by Jonathan Kozol, how do schools reinforce inequality?

democracy

On January 30, 2005, Iraq held what many claim were the first free and fair elections in its history, after many decades of military dictatorship. This was seen as the first step in transforming Iraq into a:

the hidden curriculum

What do sociologists call the lessons that students learn indirectly, but which they are not officially or formally tested on?

gays and lesbians are not full members of society

When schools fail to make any mention of gays or lesbians in the curriculum, what message is being sent?

she has been effectively locked out of certain careers

What are the most significant consequences of a high school freshman being assigned to a remedial math course?

requiring polling places to display the American flag

Which of the following is NOT a technique that could work to disenfranchise part of the population?

extrinsic religiosity

Attending religious services would be an example of:

They reproduce the class structure, making sure that most people grow up to have a socioeconomic status similar to their parents

What does the sociologist Randall Collins argue is the true function of schools?

unchurched

What is a term for someone who labels himself "spiritual but not religious"?

the profane

Within the Christian religion, certain days (Sundays), books (the Christian Bible), and objects (crucifixes) are treated differently than other days, books, and objects. Chapter 10 would say that this different treatment is needed to separate them from:

unchurched

What is a term for someone who labels himself "spiritual but not religious"?

politics

The methods and tactics of managing a political entity are called:

we are both a secular and a non secular society at the same time

The former Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor voted to allow a Christmas display on public property that included a nativity scene, but voted to prohibit city governments from having displays that had only a nativity scene. This indicates that:

tracking

When students are tested, and the test results are used to place them in a certain category of classes (remedial, advanced, college prep, etc.), this process is called:

sound bytes

When Congress recessed in August of 2009, it was hotly debating a bill to overhaul America's health care system. The House Republican leader John Boehner sent rank-and-file Republicans a memo asking them to use "new media" like Twitter to get their message out. Given that a Twitter post can only be 140 characters long, what feature of modern politics closely resembles Twitter posts?

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