Nutrition

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Essential amino acids:Children

tryptophan,phenylaline,methionine, valine, threonine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine, arginine, and histidine

Essential amino acids:adults

tryptophan, phenylaline, methionine, valine, threonine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine,

Glucose is utilized by cells

fructose, galactose converted to glucose in the liver

glucose, fructose, and galactose

monosaccharides absorbed

not digested or absorbed:roughage(fiber) non digestible polysac.

Cellulose

simple sugars

disaccharides:cane sugar beets, milk
Monosaccharides: honey fruit

starch:grain,vegetable
glycogen: meats

complex carbohydrates

sum of all chemical reactions

metabolism

Nutrients

chemicals requited for body function

essential nutrients

cant be synthesized in sufficient quantities
body can't make these

provide energy, carbohydrates, proteins, fats

macronutrients

utilizes energy, vitamins, minerals

micronutrients

gluconeogenesis

process of making glucose

Dietary requirements: Carbohydrates

125-75g/day min to prevent protein loss
55% total cal: 45% of total need to be complex
Roughage (Cellulose): hemicellulose, pectin, lignin

Protein: food

meats, cheese, milk, nuts, cereals, beans, peas, absorbed as amino acids

8 adults, 10 children, complete proteins: meats, milks, and eggs, incomplete proteins: many plants

Essential amino acids

Dietary Requirements: Proteins

minimum: .8g/kg (.4g/lb), recommended:155 of total calories, maintain nitrogen balance

Lipids

triglycerides, cholesterol

triglycerides

meats, eggs, milk,nuts, oil,( corn, peanuts, olive)

liver, egg yolk, brain, milk, meats (NOT PLANT FOOD)

cholesterol

Essential fatty acid

linoleic acid, linolenic acid ( get these from diet)

Omega 3 fatty acid

polyunsaturated, including 3rd terminal bond, best source is in fish, health benefits include cardiovascular

Dietary Requirements: Lipids

30% total calories-10% saturated, 10% monsaccharides, 10% polysaccharides, 100mg/1,00 calories as cholesterol, no more than 300mg/day

kcals in-kcals out, balance =0, positive: take in too much, store energy, negative : take in to little, use stored energy, weight gain/loss related to energy balance, 3500 kcals/lb fat

Energy Balance

measured in bomb calorimeter, carbohydrates:4.1kcal/g, proteins:4.1kcal/g, fats:9.5 kcal/g

Energy in foods

Carbohydrates & protein energy

4.1 kcal/g

Fats energy

9.5 kcal/g

Unit:calorie

energy to raise 1 g water 1*C, kcal=calorie=1,000 calories

BMR + Activities =

total energy metabolism

sex, height, weight, age, hormones, emotional state, body temperature, excessive weight fluctuations, and watching t.v

Factors affecting BMR

energy used per day at rest, measured by monitoring O2 consumption, 1 kcal/hr/kg:1,500-2000 kcal/day

Basal metabolic Rate (BMR

not stored to a great degree

water soluble

fat soluble

absorbed with other lipids, stored in body tissue

classes of vitamins

fat soluble and water soluble

Vitamins

organic dietary constituent, needed in small quantities, doesn't supply energy

proper diet

70 kg man:2800 kcals/day, proteins-15%, fats-30%, and carbs 55%, diets must maintain proteins, vitamins, minerals

co-enzymes

binds to enzymes, helps enzyme preform its function

Vitamin E

antioxidant, stability of cell membrane

Vitamin K

prothrombin syntheses ( clotting)

Vitamin D

absorption of Ca++

Vitamin A

Visual pigments, normal development bone

B1, pyruvate to Krebs

Thiamine

trace element, enzyme cofactor, essential for use of carbohydrates

Chromium

trace element, enzyme cofactor, component of certain enzymes

Selenium

trace element, tooth structure

Fluorine

trace element, cofactor: component pf enzymes involved in digestion, respiration, bone metabolism, live metabolism, necessary for normal wound healing and maintain integrity of the skin

zink

cyanocobalmin,enzyme cofactor, trace element

cobalt

part of thyroid hormone, trace element

iodine

trace element, enzyme cofactor, essential for hemoglobin synthesis, bone development, melanin production and myelin formation

copper

trace element, enzyme cofactor, fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis, urea formation and normal functioning of the nervous system

manganese

bones, teeth, ATP, ect..., major mineral

phosphorus

trace element, hemoglobin, vit A, enzymes

iron

bone, teeth, nerve/muscle function, major mineral

calcium

intracellular osmotic pressure, action potentials, major mineral

potassium

part of amino acid, major mineral

sulfur

extracellular osmotic pressure, action potential, major mineral

sodium

extracellular osmotic pressure, HCL, major mineral

chlorine

cofactor for ATP metabolism. major mineral

magnesium

needed in relatively small amounts

trace element

needed in relatively large quantities

major mineral

major mineral, trace elements

types of minerals

inorganic substances essential for body function, origin: soil->plant-> animal

minerals

C, Coenzyme water soluble, collagen production A.A metabolism, steroid synthesis

ascorbic acid

NAD ( electron transport)
^ co enzyme I, water soluble

Niacin

A.A and protein synthesis, water soluble

B6

B2, FAD(electron transport), water soluble, co enzyme

Riboflavin

FAD

is an electron carrier in the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain

B12, nucleic acid synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, water soluble, coenzyme

cyanocobalamin

folic acid, water soluble, DNA synthesis, RBC production, coenzyme

Folacin

A.A and F.A metabolism, water soluble, coenzyme

Biotin

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