exchange of 1 commodity for another without money
reproduction of goods with knowledge involved in making them
interaction of cultural and environment
tools and techniques of manufacture and production; adapt to different environments, ex Inuit Eskimos
Division of Labor
how work and other activities are allocated to specific sorts of people within society
Division of labor by age
american labor versus Dani labor (20 vs. 6)
Division of labor by gender
men do heavy labor; women work at home.. lols.
hunting and gathering
raising domestic animals, usually food traction (pulling vehicles/plows)
subsistence mode where groups keep herds of animals 1. Depend on Animals 2. Sybolic/social life revolves on animals 3.Move settlements according to seasons
movement of flocks back and forth between seasonal camp areas ex: Bakhtiari of W. Iran
Slash and Burn
temporary fields partially cleared planted for very few crop cycles; then abandoned. ecologically sound
tech simple; carried out with hand tools like digging sticks instead of plows or draft animals.
intensive; plows tractors, field irrigation system, fertilizer, insecticides, cash cropping vs. subsistence
Food production strategies in Industrialized societies
commercial fishing; subsistent strategies; Milagro Beanfield War !
wide range of exchange involving goods and services between relative equal people/ groups
exchange of g/s without keeping track of their exact value but often with expectation that their value will balance out over TIME "delayed"
Exchange of mwali-while arm shells and bagi-red shell necklaces; trade bracelets clockwise among the island, and necklaces counter-clockwise
Funerary gift exchange among trobriand women
status of matrilineage connnections btwn dead persons parents...
Food sharing as Insurance
kantu people of W. Kalimantan in Indonesian Borneo. Ju/Hoansi owner of arrow = owner of meat
kwa kwaka wakw weddings. grooms and brides exchange gifts
direct IMMEDIATE exchange of g/s with little or NO long-term social consequences. long distance exchange
distribution of good without any full reciprocity by trickery and plunder.
distribution of part of a rich persons wealth or resources from common pool.
re distributive mechanism (system): religious economic institution of chiapas... Mayans spend great time and money of carrying ceremonial offices.
system through g/s are exchanged for MONEY !!! $$$
Consumption - FOOD
1 primary concern of economics. How things are used. 1. personal prefernce. 2. Health. 3. Moral 4. Religious. Muslim - no pork ; Hindu - No Beef
male having 2 or MORE spouses
women having 2 or more spuses RARE
union of man and woman sharing lives together 1. Sex Regulation - Freedom!! ha ha 2. Economic Cooperation 3. education of children for Future
responsibility for setting up marriage resides w/ groups of bride and groom. Makes alliances; marriage brokers..
individualism form of marriage.. ppl choose their own spouses and are NOT forced to rely on their kin to do it for them
only 1 spose at a time
multiple spouses at 1 time
groom and his kin give goods to brides kin as she moves in w/ groom
brides kin gives goods to grooms kin.. Indian Marriage !! its expected in Hinduism
after wedding; couples live w/ Brides family and groom works for and with Brides Family
prohibits ppl of same social grp 4m marrying each other
1 must marry within their own's grp.. ex: Indian castes
marriage FOrbidden btwn 2 ppl closely related ppl. 1. Bio interbreeding disadvantsages. 2. Social alliances - no connections btwn other ppl 3. Social Role conflicts
marriage btwn children of bro and sis... closest relatives who are allowed to marry...
man dies w/o sons; 1 of his brothers marries a women, usually the widow to have sons in his name.
Varna = 4 hierarchial divisions 1. Brahmans (priests) 2. kshatriyas (warriors) 3. vaishyas ( merchants) 4. Shudras ( artisans) 5. Untouchables
fam living in seperate household apart from other relatives.
larger than nuclear family. 3 or more generations, in 1 household
establishing independent residence with married couple
living with wifes kin in group
living with husbands kin grp
living with uncle