Anatomy and Physiology of Speech

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Articulation

Bones of the face

Mandible
Maxilla
Nasal bone
Palatine bone
Vomer
Zygomatic
Lacrimal
Hyoid

Mandible

- Unpaired bone
- forms the lower jaw
- largest and strongest bone of the face
- only movable in the skull
- begins as a paired bone but fuses at the midline by 1 year of age

Maxilla

- Paired bone
- forms the upper jaw and face
- makes up most of the roof of the mouth hard palate nose and upper dental ridge

Processes of the maxilla

- frontal
- alveolar
- zygomatic
- palatine

Lacrimal

- Extremely small bones
- Almost hidden
- Articulates with the maxilla
- Lacrimal means tears

Hyoid bone

- Only bone that doesn't articulate with other bones

Bones of the cranial skeleton

- Ethmoid
- Sphenoid
- Frontal
- Temporal
- Parietal
- Occipital
- Sutures

Ethmoid

- Internal bone that forms nasal cavities and eye orbit
- Its presence is in the cranial nasal and orbital surfaces
- considered to be the core of the face like an apple core

Sphenoid bone

- Interior butterfly shaped bone
- consists of a corpus and three pairs of processes such as:
-greater wings
-lesser wings
-pterygoid process

Frontal bone

- Unpaired
- Boney forehead
- forms the supraorbital region - anterior portion above the eyes
- coronal suture marks the point of articulation of the frontal and parietal bone
- articulates with the zygomatic through the zygomatic process and the nasal bone

Temporal bone

- two bones that form lateral and inferior portion of the skull
- important for speech and audiology
- separated fromt he parietal bone by the squamosal suture
- separated from the occipital bone by the occipitomastoid suture

Temporal bone: 4 segments/portions

- Squamous
- Tympanic
- Mastoid
- Petrous

What is articulation?

- Articulation is the process by which sounds, syllables, and words are formed when your tongue, jaw, teeth, lips, and palate alter the air stream coming from the vocal folds.
- Interactive Sagittal Section

Pharyngeal Adjustments

- Effected by actions of muscles that influence the positioning of the pharynx
- inward/outward movement of the pharyngeal walls
- forward/backward movement of the front and/or back wall of the pharynx
- raising/lowering of pharynx or velum

Pharyngeal Adjustments 2

- Changing the degree of coupling between phyarngeal and oral cavity
- Upward/downward movement of tongue
- Upward/downward movement of velum
- Side-to-side movements of anterior faucial pillars
- Results in increasing or decreasing the opening from oral cavity to pharynx

Mandibular Adjustments

- Adjusted in position only, not shape
- can be protruded, retracted, lateralized or centralized

Lingual Adjustments

- Near infinite number of configurations of tongue
- Can protrude, retract, lateralize, centralize, curl, point, bulge, groove, flatten, rotate, etc.

Labial Adjustments

- Highly mobile
- can be moved independently or as a unit
- can change the position of each lip
- position and shape of the corners of the mouth
- resultant compression between lips, teeth, and gums
- configuration of the opening to the airway

Source filter theory of speech production

- Vocal tract forms a tunable resonating chamber.
- Vocal tract is made of a number of cavities and their walls.
- Speech sounds are made by "wiggling" these walls, which changes vocal tract shape and its resonating characteristics
- The "wiggling" is performed by articulators.

Articulators: Immobile

- Hard palate
- Teeth
- Alveolar ridge of the upper jaw called
maxilla

Articulators: Mobile

- Tongue is largest than mandible
- Mandible is lower jaw
- Pharynx
- Soft Palate or velum
- Face, lips and cheeks

Oral Cavity

- Lingual fenulum

Structures
- Anterior faucial pillar or glossopalatine arch
- it contains the fibers of the palatoglossus muscle
- Divides oral from pharyngeal cavities

Also,
- Posterior faucial pillar or Pharyngopalatine arch which contains fibers of the palatopharyngeus muscle

Oral Cavity 2

- Lies within the alveolar arches, gums, and teeth.
- Roof: hard palate in front and the soft palate behind
- Floor: anterior two-thirds of the tongue and by the reflection of the mucous membrane from the sides of the tongue to the gum on the mandible.
- Midline: fold of mucous membrane or frenulum of the tongue connects the undersurface of the tongue to the floor of the mouth

Pharynx/ Pharyngeal Cavity

- Connects mouth with esophagus as a tube about 12cm in length
- Three regions
- Extends from the vocal folds below to the region behind the nasal cavities

3 regions of pharynx/pharyngeal cavity

- Oropharynx: posterior portion to the fauces, bounded above by the velum.
- Laryngopharynx or hypopharynx: bounded anteriorly by epiglottis and inferiorly by the esophagus
- Nasopharynx: space above the soft palate, bounded posteriorly by the pharyngeal protuberance of the occipital bone and by the nasal choanae in front

Nasal Cavity

- Produced by paired maxillae, palatine, and nasal bones
- Divided by the nasal spetum, made up of the singular vomer bone, perpendicular plate of ethmoid, and the cartilaginous septum
- Covered with mucous membrane

Nasal Cavity 2

- Nasal choanae: the posterior portals connecting the nasopharynx and nasal cavities
- The floor of the nasal cavity is the hard palate of the oral cavity, specifically the palatine processes of maxillae and horizontal plates of the palatine bones

Facial Muscles Relevant for speech

- Platysma
- Orbicularis Oris
- Buccinator
- Risorius
- Zygomatic Major & Minor
- Levator Labii Superior
- Depressor Labii Inferior
- Levator Anguli Oris
- Depressor Anguli Oris
- Mentalis
MotorSupply:CNVII

Platysma Muscle

- Typically considered a muscle of the neck, but its function as a mandibular depressor
- Broad muscle covering front of neck from around clavicle to front and side of mandible
- Contraction draws skin of neck up toward the mandible; pulls lower lip and corner of mouth to the side and down; forces lower lip against lower teeth

Orbicularis Oris Muscle

- Ring of muscle with the lips
- Paired upper & lower muscles
- Point of insertion
- Interacting w/ muscles of the face to produce a variety of facial gestures
- Contraction results in positional changes of lips
- Moves lips toward each other
- Purse lips
- Move corners of mouth up, down, lateral or medially
- May retract lips against teeth

Buccinator Muscles

- Forms part of the cheek
- Lies deep to the risorius
- Primarily involved in mastication-to move food onto the grinding surfaces of the molards.
- Insert into the upper and lower lips at the corners of the mouth
- Contraction pulls corners of mouth backwards and toward the side
- Can also force lips and cheek against adjacent teeth

Risorius Muscles

- Located within cheek, superficial to buccinator; smaller than the buccinator
- Insert into the lower lips and into the corners of the mouth
- Retract the lips at the corner, facilitating smiling and grinning
- Contraction pulls corners of mouth backwards and toward the side
- Can also force lips and cheek against adjacent teeth

Zygomatic Major

- Arises lateral to the zygomatic minor on the zygomatic bone
- Fibers run from zygomatic bone to corner of mouth
- Elevates and retracts the angle of the mouth, as in the gesture of smiling
- Contraction pulls backward on corner of mouth while moving it upward and to the side

Zygomatic Minor

- Begins its downward course from the facial surface of the zygomatic bone
- Fibers run from zygomatic bone to midline of upper lip
- Dominant forces in lip elevation, dilating the oral opening
- Contraction pulls backward on corner of mouth while moving it upward and to the side

Levator Labii Superior

- Nearly vertically along the lateral margin of the nose, arising from the frontal process of maxilla
- Fibers insert into upper lip
- Contraction elevates upper lip or lip elevation
- May also cause an outward turning of the lip upper or eversion

Depressor Labii Inferior

- Counterpart to the levator triad listed previously.
- Fibers insert into midline of lower lip
- Contraction pulls lower lip downward and to the side
- May also cause an outward turning of the lower lip or eversion

Levator Anguli Oris

- Arises from the canine fossa of the maxilla, inserting into upper and lower lips
- Draws corners of lips to the side
- Also elevates lower lip to the upper lip to force lips together

Depressor Anguli Oris

- originates along the lateral margins of the mandible on the oblique line, inserting in upper lip and the corners of the mouth
- Pulls corners of the mouth down
- Also lowers upper lip to the lower lip

Mentalis Muscle

- Arises from the region of the incisive fossa of the mandible, inserting into the skin of the chin below
- Lies on the front of the chin
- Contraction of the mentalis elevates and wrinkles the chin and curls/pulls the lower lip out
- "Pouting muscle"

The Muscles Of Facial Expression: Articulation Involving The Lips

- Risorius and buccinator muscles insert into the corners of the mouth and retract the lips.
- The depressor labii inferioris depresses the lower lip.
- The levator labii superioris, zygomatic minor, and levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscles elevate the upper lip.

The Muscles Of Facial Expression: Articulation Involving The Lips 2

- The zygomatic major muscle elevates and retracts the lips.
- The depressor anguli oris depresses the corner of the mouth.
- The levator anguli oris pulls the corner of the mouth up and medially.

Types of Tonsils

- Palatine tonsils
- lateral walls of the oropharynx which is between anterior and posterior faucial pillars

-Lingualtonsils is surface of the tongue root

- Pharyngealtonsils or Adenoids is the posterior pharyngeal wall

- Pharyngeal, palatine and lingual tonsils form Waldeyer's ring for protection

Tongue

- A mass of striated muscle covered with mucous membrane
- Muscles attach the tongue to the styloid process and the soft palate above and to the mandible and the hyoid bone below
- Anterior 2/3 lies in the mouth
- Posterior 3rd lies in the pharynx

Tongue 2

- The most capable structure for determining the geometry of the vocal tract; since it "rides" on the mandible like the lower lip, it must work in concert with the mandible to shape the vocal tract
- Ability to move tongue in a different way than the mandible is called dissociation
- Primarily in masication and deglutition, being responsible for movement of food within the oral cavity to position it for chewing and to propel it backward for swallowing

Tongue Muscles: Extrinsic

- Tend to move the tongue into the general region desired
- Muscles with origins outside tongue and attachments in the body and root of tongue.
- Typically move the tongue as a whole.

Tongue Muscles: Intrinsic

- Tend to provide the fine, graded control of the articulatory gesture
- Muscles with both origins and insertions in the tongue
- Make up the bulk of the tongue body and root
- Account for the wide variety of tongue shapes
- Because the extrinsic muscles insert into the tongue, their fibers will intermingle with the fibers of the intrinsic muscles
- Tongue is "volume preserving" - squeeze it in one direction, it will "pop" out somewhere else like a balloon filled with water

Tongue muscles: Extrinsic

- Genioglossus muscle
- Styloglossus M.
- Palatoglossus M.
- Hyoglossus M.
- Chondroglossus M.

Tongue muscles: Intrinsic

- Superior longitudinal M.
- Inferior longitudinal M.
- Transverse M.
- Vertical M.

Temporomandibular Joint

- Mobility of TMJ
- Hinge action: Mandible lowered
- Gliding action: Mandible moved forward
- Gliding action: Front of mandible moved side-to-side

- Chewing
- Complicated movements Hinge action open/close Lateral, ventral action

- Speech
- Hinge action
-Ventral action

Mandibular Muscles: Depressors

- Digastric muscle, anterior belly
- Mylohyoid muscle
- Geniohyoid muscle
- External pterygoid muscle or lateral

Digastric Muscle

- Pulls hyoid upward and/or depresses mandible
- Anterior belly works to lower mandible

Mylohyoid Muscle

- Pulls hyoid upward OR depresses mandible
- Positioned along bottom of the oral cavity

Geniohyoid

- Pulls hyoid upward and forward
- OR depresses mandible
- Lies superior to my lohyoid,parallel to digastric

External Pterygoid Muscle

- Origin (2):
- lateral pterygoid plate greater wing of the sphenoid
- Insertion: neck of mandible
- Action:
-depress mandible
-slide mandible forward
-contraction of one side moves mandible toward the opposite side
Motor supply:
CN V (V3)

Mandibular Muscles: Elevators

- Masseter muscle
- Temporalis muscle
- Inernal pterygoid muscle or medial
- Close mouth or elevate mandible to create pressure between opposing teeth

Masseter Muscle

-Origin:
-zygomatic arch
-Insertion:
-Lateral surface of angle of the mandible
-Action:
-elevates the mandible pulls it backward
Motor supply:
CN V (V3)

Medial Pterygoid Muscle

-Origin:
-medial pterygoid plate
-Insertion:
-medial surface of the angle of mandible
-Action:
-elevates the mandible
Motor supply:
CN V (V3)

Temporalis Muscle

-Origin:
-temporal fossa of temporal bone
-Insertion:
-coronoid process of mandible
-Action:
-elevates the mandible
- pulls backward
- Contraction of one side retracts that side of mandible and moves front to that side
Motor supply:
CN V (V3)

Medial Pterygoid Muscle

-Origin:
-medial pterygoid plate
-Insertion:
-medial surface of the angle of mandible
-Action:
-elevates the mandible
-contraction of one side moves mandible toward opposite
Motor supply:
CN V (V3)

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