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concepts

mental categories that are used to group objects ,events, and characterisitcs

two models that have been proposed to explain the structure of concepts

classical model and prototype

cassical model

model stating that all instances of a concept share defining properties

prototype model

model emphasizing that when people evaluate wheater a given item reflects a certain concept, they compare the item the item with the most typical items in that category and look for a "family resemblance".

Animal Language

first non human Wahoe chimp could learn ASL (American Sign Language)
Was signing unintentionally cued

Donald and Gua

chimp could not learn to speak English.The psychologist Winthrop Kellogg wondered what would happen if the situation were reversed. What if an animal were raised by humans. so he got a chimp girl and raised wit with his son. it turned out that the child human was more impatating the chimp.

Nim

•Drink NIM Eat Drink Banana Me
Tea Drink Grape Eat Grape Eat NIM

Kanzi

bamboo who learned sign langauage from mother without cueing.

Framing

one of the cognitive biases, describes that presenting the same option in different formats can alter people's decisions ex 95% fat free people is the sam has 5% fat but people prefer 95% fat free

difference between human function and chimp

Sentence length increases dramatically in children from 2-4 years, but remains fixed and limited to chimps

Problem Solving

An attempt to find an appropriate way of attaining a goal when the gaol is not readily available

Algorithms

strategies that guarantee a solution to a problem

Heuristics

shortcut stratagies or guidelines that sugges,t but do not guarantee to a problem

reasoning

the mental activity of transforming infromation to reach conclusions

two types of reason?

inductive and dedcutive

inductive reasoning

reasoning from the specific to hte general or from the bottom-up

deductive reasoning

reasoning from the gerneral to the specific

Functional Fixedness

a type of fixation in which individuals fail to solve a problem becuase they are fixated on a thing's usal functions

Mental Set

a tendency to approach situations the same way because that way worked in the past. For example, a child may enter a store by pushing a door open. Every time they come to a door after that, the child pushes the door expecting it to open even though many doors only open by pulling. This child has a mental set for opening doors

Availability Heuristic

a prediction about the probability of an event based on the ease of recalling or imagining similar events

Skinner vs Chomsky

chomsky theory argue that humans are bilogically prewired to learn language at a certain time and in a certain way but skinner argued that language represents nothing more htan chains of repsonses aquired through reinforcement. A baby happens to babble "ma-ma", mama reward the baby with hugs and kisses and baby says ma ma more and more.

Grammar

in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.

phonology-Phonemes

a language's sound system. langauge is made up of basic sounds or phonemes. make sure certain sound sequences occurs and othes do not. for example in english language /k/, the sound represent by the letter k in the work ski and the letter c in the word cat the /k/ sound is described as a single phoneme

Morphology-Morphemes

a language's rules for word formation. Every word in english langauge is made up fo one or more morhpenes. a morphene is the smalles unit of language that carries meaning. ex helper has two morphemes. er means the one who so in this case the one who helps.

syntax

a langauge's rules for hte way words are combined to from acceptable phrasses ans sentences

semantics

the meaning of words and sentences in a particular language. example girl and women share many semantic features but differnt samatically in reagard to age.

babbling

endless repeating sounds and syllables such as babababa dadadada begins at the age of 3-6 months and is determined by biological readiness, not by the amount of reinforcement or the ability to hear.allows baby to excercise the vocal cords helps develop the ablility to articulate differenet sounds

telegraphic speech

At approximately age 2, children enter the Two-Word Stage of language development. During this stage they exhibit telegraphic speech, which is speech that sounds very much like a telegram, has words arranged in an order that makes sense, and contains almost all nouns and verbs. For example, a child at this stage of development who wants to get milk may say "get milk", as opposed to saying just "milk". As you can see, there are only two words, they are in an order that makes sense, there is one verb and one noun, and it sounds like a telegram.

measurement reliability

the extent ot which a test yeilds consistent, reproducible mearue of performence

measurement validity

soundess from conlusions to be drawn from an experiement

mental age MA

an individual's level of mental development relative tto that of others

intelligence quotient IQ

an individuals mental age divided by chornological age multiplied by 100

normal distribution, bell-shaped curve

a symmetircal, bell shpaed curve witha mjority of hte socres falling in hte middle of hte possible range and few scores appearing toward the extremes of the range.

Stanford Binet

The Stanford-Binet test started with the French psychologist Alfred Binet, whom the French government commissioned with developing a method of identifying intellectually deficient children for their placement in special education programs. developed MA and IQ

Jospeh Sternberg

developed the triarchic theory of intelligence, which states that intellgience comes in mulitple forms. mainly 3, analytical,creative,practical

Analytical intelligence

ability to analyze, judge, evalute, compare, and contrast

creative intelligence

the ability to create, design, invent, originate, and imagine

practical intelligence

the ablilty to use apply implement, and put ideas into practice

howard gardar

8 frams of mind: verbal (think in words and use lang. to exp meaing ex. author), mathematical, spatial (think 3-deminsional ex artist), bodily-kinesthetic (manipulate objets and physcially adept ex. dancer), muscial, interpersonal (get along with other ex teacher), Intrapersonal ( understand oneself ex psychologist), naturalist ( observe patterns in naure ex landscaper or farmer)

Raven Test and Autism

valid intelligence test not depended on social. 20 points higher than welchers test in autism children because no socila interaction is involved in test.

Changes in IQ over Time

intelligence measure can be very dynamic throughout child hood and change

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