1. Which of the following statements concerning map scale is false?
A) The fractional scale 1:1,000,000 means one inch on the map represents one million inches on the ground.
B) If the linear scale of a map is twice another, its aerial representation is four times larger.
C) To represent a large area on a small map, a small scale is used.
D) Larger-scale maps allow for greater detail in depicting regions and subregions.
E) A map with the fractional scale 1:103,000,000 has a larger scale than one of 1:1,000,000.
2. A functional region:
A) is defined on the basis of some variable, such as the area where corn is grown
B) is exemplified by a city and its hinterland
C) is also known as a formal region
D) has a transition zone at its center
E) is the same as a homogeneous region
3. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
A) Regions marked by internal homogeneity are classified as formal regions.
B) Regions conceptualized as "spatial systems" are collectively identified as functional regions.
C) A country likely constitutes a formal political region because within its boundaries certain conditions of
nationality, law, and political tradition prevail.
D) Functional regions are generally more static and immobile than formal regions.
E) Functional regions have a core and a periphery.
4. The process by which a tectonic plate consisting of less heavy rock rides up over a heavier plate is known as:
B) tectonic uplifting
D) continental drifting
E) physiographic collision
5. Which of the following statements is true?
A) Desertification occurs only on the Eurasian landmass.
B) Deserts are mainly found on the eastern sides of the continents.
C) Rainfall is least dependable in the drier portions of the world.
D) Wegener derived the theory of climatic regions.
E) None of the above.
6. Rainfall patterns in humid tropical (A) climates are characterized by all except:
A) substantial precipitation every month, year-round, in the Af (rainforest) subtype
B) a sudden increase in rainfall resulting from the arrival of the monsoon in the Am (monsoon) subtype
C) a "double maximum" sometimes involving "long rains" and "short rains" in the savanna (Aw) subtype
D) the specter of hunger in savanna areas because of comparatively infertile soils and unreliable seasonal
E) principally nighttime rainfall in rainforest (Af) areas
7. Savanna environments belong to the general climate type known as:
B) humid cold
C) humid temperate
D) humid equatorial
8. Which of the following major rivers is not associated with one of the world's great population clusters?
B) Huang He (Yellow)
D) Ganges Chang Jiang (Yangzi)
9. Which country is not located within one of the world's three largest population clusters:
B) the United States
10. Which of the following statements concerning the world's most widely distributed language family is incorrect?
A) It is known as Indo-European.
B) It includes English.
C) It prevails throughout the Americas.
D) Its many languages are mutually understandable.
E) Its current geographic extent is the result of colonialism.
11. The geographic principle under which particular peoples and particular places concentrate on the production of
particular goods is known as:
E) local functional specialization
12. Europe's political revolution:
A) began in 1789 with the French Revolution
B) ended with the division of the German state in 1945
C) was stimulated by the new weaponry produced by the Industrial Revolution
D) originated as a reaction to the oppression of the Roman Empire
E) was an anticolonial rebellion that threw off Moorish and Ottoman yokes
13. Which of the following is not an example of European supranationalism?
B) the Euro currency
C) the European Union
D) the European Parliament
E) Ukraine's Orange Revolution
15. Which of the following cities is not part of one of the Four Motors of Europe?
16. Which of the following cities is located in the Randstad conurbation:
D) Vienna Brussels
17. The term Balkanization refers to:
A) a peculiar language spoken in Bulgaria
B) the landmass located just to the west of the Adriatic Sea
C) Serbian supranationalism
D) the division and fragmentation of the southern portion of Eastern Europe
E) the imposition of the Slavic religion
18. The leading manufacturing/industrial complex in Poland is located in:
A) the Bohemian Basin
B) the Warsaw area
C) the Vistula Valley
E) the Baltic coastal zone
19. Bulgarians have felt close to the Russian population because:
A) the Russians are a fellow Serbian population
B) the capital Sofia is close to the Russian border
C) the Russians were responsible for driving the Turks from this area
D) the Russians were responsible for freeing Bulgaria from the control of the Hungarians
E) both countries have coastlines on the Baltic Sea
20. An unusual aspect of Albania is:
A) its location on both the Black and Adriatic Seas
B) its large Eastern Orthodox population
C) its former control by the Ottoman Empire
D) its former control by the Austro-Hungarian Empire
E) its large Muslim population
21. After the downfall of the Soviet Union, an attempt was made to replace the Soviet state with:
A) a Russian Common Market
B) the Commonwealth of Independent States
C)the Warsaw Pact
D) the Putin Federation
E) People's Republic of Russia
22. Which of the following is not an ex-Soviet, Central Asian Republic?
23. The vegetation on a higher-latitude treeless plain (mostly mosses, lichens, and sparse grasses) is known as:
B) Oligarctic biomass
24. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
A) Russia's core area centers on Moscow.
B) Moscow lies at the heart of what is commonly called the Central Industrial Region.
C) Nearly all Russian cities are overcrowded with most people residing in cramped living quarters.
D) One of Moscow's chief locational attributes is its coastal site on an arm of the Baltic Sea.
E) The Bolsheviks restored Moscow as the capital after the 1917 Revolution.
25. Which of the following statements is false?
A) The Soviet system bound the economic geography of the republics to the center.
B) The absence of competition in the Soviet Union made managers complacent.
C) Often, the Soviet Union assigned the production of particular good to particular locations, ignoring basic
principles of economic geography.
D) Many Russians still live in the 14 now independent republics of the former Soviet Union
E)The Soviet economy was a tremendous success story; the USSR would still exist it were not for overriding ethnic differences.
26. The number of Republics within the Russian Federation is:
E) the Republics were disbanded by the Putin regime in 2000
27. Under Putin, Russia's internal political entities have been grouped into seven:
B) Socialist Republics
D) Autonomous Communities
E)federal administrative districts
28. This Caspian Sea-facing Russian Republic contains 30 distinct nationalities, is located next to the Chechen Republic, and is dominated by agriculture and oil:
A) Ingush Republic
B) Mari Republic
C) North Ossetian Republic
D) Dagestan Republic
29. The former Soviet Socialist Republic on the Black Sea containing the birthplace of Stalin is:
A) Moldova (Moldavia)
E) the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
30. Japanese investment in Russia's Far East has been held up by a longstanding dispute over:
A) the Amur River
B) four tiny Kurile Islands
C) the ferry route that links to the BAM railroad
D) Sakhalin Island
31. The physiographic region called the Canadian Shield:
A) is the geologic core of North America
B) is an intermontane zone
C) consists of extensive mountainous terrain
D) is bordered on the west by the Appalachian Mountains
E) is also known as the Arctic Coastal Plain
32. An amenity is:
A) a form of transportation used in the rural Midwest
B) something pleasant in the environment
C) an epoch of metropolitan evolution in Canada
D) a religious community
E) a multicultural landscape in French Canada
33. Which of the following is false?
A) The U.S. microprocessor industry is concentrated in Silicon Valley.
B) The U.S. is currently completing a postindustrial revolution
C) Silicon Valley may be thought of as a technopole
D) The Mercedes-Benz factory in Alabama turned out to be a great investment for the State government
E) Stanford University is an important component of Silicon Valley
34. The habitable zone of permanent settlement of a country is known as its:
D) manufacturing belt
E) core area
35. One of the conditions of the entry of British Columbia into Canada was:
A) the opening of the Panama Canal
B) the building of the transcontinental Canadian Pacific Railway
C) the opening of the Northwest Passage
D) the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway
E) the annexation of the Canadian Shield
36. Which of the following is false?
A) the French speaking area of Canada does not coincide with the province of Quebec
B) some non-Francophone communities in Quebec have made it known that they might want to secede from Quebec if the province seceded from Canada
C) the Cree in the Northern Quebec have launched their own movement aimed at independence from Canada
D) Quebec has twice voted for independence and twice rejected that route
E) the territory of the Cree has significant hydroelectric power resources
37. The North American Free Trade Agreement:
A) went into effect in the year 2000
B) includes Central America
C) includes only the United States, Canada, and Mexico
D) makes North America the largest trading bloc in the world
E) was disbanded in 2007
38. Which statement best defines the North American Core?
A) it encompasses a great rectangle from Boston to Washington to St. Louis to Milwaukee and includes
B) it incorporates the subsidiary cores of California, Texas, and Florida into a continent-wide network.
C) it consists of the prime farmlands of the Midwest and the Prairie Provinces.
D) it lies astride the United States-Canadian boundary westward from Lake Superior, extending to British Columbia and Washington State.
E) it is constituted by the source area of modern North American culture: the east coast of the United States and Canada's St. Lawrence Valley.
39. The North American region with the greatest disparity in income between rich and poor is:
A) the South
B) the Continental Core
C) the Southwest
D) New England/Atlantic Provinces
E) the Western Frontier
40. The three-pronged foundation of the Southwest is:
A) the cities of Phoenix, Las Vegas, and San Diego
B) coal, oil, natural gas
C) urban, suburban, and rural settlement
D) electricity, water, and the automobile
E) the States of Texas, Colorado, and Arizona
41. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
A) Though African cultural influences dominate in the Caribbean portion of Middle America, Amerindian traditions survive on the mainland.
B) Trinidad is one of the Greater Antilles.
C) Anthropologists commonly refer to the Middle American culture hearth as Mesoamerica.
D) Mainland Middle America functions as a land bridge between Mexico and South America.
E) Plantations are found in the Rimland.
42. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
A) The Mayan civilization arose in the highland areas of Mexico.
B) The Aztec civilization was founded on the higher plateaus of present-day Mexico.
C) The ceremonial center of the Aztec civilization, named Tenochtitlan, was located in the Valley of Mexico.
D) Tenochtitlan probably had over 100,000 inhabitants at its peak.
E) The Aztecs were conquered by the Spanish.
43. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
A) Caribbean cultural diversity is greater than that found in mainland Middle America.
B) Mexico accounts for approximately 70 percent of the total land area of Middle America.
C) Spain held on to Cuba and Puerto Rico until the Spanish-American War at the end of the nineteenth century.
D) The largest Caribbean country in both area and population is the Dominican Republic.
E) The Panama Canal is located in Middle America.
44. Transculturation is most closely associated with the shaping of cultural traits in:
D) Puerto Rico
E) United States
45. Central America, as defined by geographers, is:
A) a region within Middle America lying between Mexico and Colombia
B) a region that incorporates all the lands and islands between the United States and South America
C) the regional term for the Greater Antilles
D) the heartland or central zone of Middle America (Mestizoamerica)
E) the region covered by Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize
46. This country fought a civil war from 1980-1992 in which 75,000 persons died. The United States supported the government, while Nicaragua supported the Marxist rebels:
D) El Salvador
47. Which of the following is not a major cause of tropical deforestation in Central America?
A) the need to clear land for cattle pasture
B) Costa Rica's large-scale paper and pulp industry
C) the timber industry's demand for tropical hardwood trees
D) population growth
E) all of the above are major causes
48. As a result of U.S. interest in a Panama Canal during the early 20th century:
A) Panama became a U.S. territory
B) a treaty was drawn up granting the U.S. permanent sovereignty over the Canal Zone
C) Panama became independent from Colombia
D) a Panamanian revolt was subdued by U.S. intervention
E) a French company finally completed the canal in 1918
49. Which country has been independent for more than 200 years?
50. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
A) Haiti's population is predominantly black with a small mulatto minority.
B) In the second half of the nineteenth century approximately 100,000 Chinese emigrated to Cuba as indentured
C) Trinidad has a large East Indian minority and Hindi remains a commonly spoken language.
D) Cuba's population has a black majority.
E) Haiti is located on the island of Hispaniola.
51. The richest 20% of the South American population control _____ of the realm's wealth.
52. An altiplano is a(n):
A) low area with small mountains
B) plain high in the Andes
C) agricultural area in Brazil
D) altitudinal zone lying above
E) type of Brazilian aircraft
53. Which of the following statements is false?
A) South America's population remains concentrated in its interior, although many peripheral locations are growing rapidly.
B) Strong cultural pluralism exists in a majority of the countries in South America.
C) In general, the southern portion of South America is the most developed and the northeastern portion is least developed.
D) Brazil alone accounts for about half the land area of South America.
E) Brazil alone accounts for more than half the population of South America.
54. The Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494 stipulated that a north-south boundary was to be drawn separating the South American territories of ___________________.
A) Spain and France
B) France and Britain
C) Spain and Portugal
D) the Netherlands and France
E) the Incas and the Mayas
55. Which of the following is false?
A) The Spanish viceroyalties existed in isolation from one another.
B) Only Australia has a population that is more peripheral than South America's.
C) South America never attracted as many immigrants as did North America.
D) The Spanish invested significantly in their South American colonies.
E) All of the above are true.
56. Which landlocked South American country stands to benefit most from the Hidrovia waterway project?
57. In the Latin American city model, the elite residential sector contains the:
A) commercial/industrial spine
B) disamenity sector
C) zone of maturity
D) zone of in situ accretion
E) zone of peripheral squatter settlements
58. The informal sector of the economy includes:
A) government workers
B) unlicensed sellers of homemade goods
C) mass-produced industrial goods
D) the commercial agricultural sector
E) all businesses in the spine of the city
59. Colombia's coffee growing areas are most often associated with the:
A) tierra templada climate zone
B) llanos-dominated environments of tropical valleys in the Andean ranges
C) coastal plains, in particular those near the larger port cities
D) major irrigation projects that use water transferred from the upper Amazon Basin to relieve the aridity of the country's grasslands
E) FARC insurgent states
60. Venezuela and Colombia as compared with the Guianas have:
A) larger territories and smaller populations
B) larger populations and smaller territories
C) less varied physiographies
D) been more successful in replacing the plantation economy
E) fewer economic opportunities
61. The country of Guyana:
A) was formerly a British colony before independence in 1966
B) is also called Suriname
C) contains a population that is three-quarters European
D) is the smallest of the four Guianas in population size
E) still belongs to France
62. The Peru (Humboldt) Current is:
A) a cool offshore ocean current conducive to commercial fishing that flows parallel to the Peruvian coastline
B) a drying wind that blows off the Andes and creates desert-like conditions along the Peruvian coastal plain
C) a rising air movement that brings the hot and humid conditions of the tierra fría to the uppermost Andean basins
D) a new high-voltage electrical network that transmits Amazon-oil-generated power by pipeline to the cities across the Andes
E) Lima's leading English-language newspaper
63. Unlike Peru's coast, Ecuador's coastland consists of:
B) fertile tropical plains
C) mountains that reach the sea
D) indented bays with many excellent port facilities
E) altiplanos covered by equatorial forest
64. In Ecuador, a regional split has occurred between:
A) Quito and Lima
B) Guayaquil and Amazonia
C) Guayaquil and Quito
D) Lima and Bogotá
E) Quito and Cuzco
65. A moderating influence on west-central Bolivia's climate is:
A) Lake Titicaca
B) the Atlantic Ocean
C) the Pacific Ocean
D) Rio de la Plata
E) the Peru Current
66. Which of the following countries contains a population whose ethnicity is dominated by Amerindian ancestry?
67. The "Triple Frontier" is where which of the following three countries come together?
A) Chile, Bolivia, Argentina
B) Paraguay, Argentina, Brazil
C) Peru, Ecuador, and Brazil
D) Venezuela, Colombia, Brazil
E) Brazil, French Guiana, and Suriname
68. Most of Argentina's population is clustered in the:
A) Gran Chaco
B) Patagonian North
D) Andean foothills
E) Triple Frontier area
69. In 1982 Argentina fought a war with Britain over:
A) Tierra del Fuego
B) the Falkland Islands
C) the outcome of a controversial soccer match
D) land claims in Antarctica
E) their common maritime boundary in the mid-Atlantic
70. Chile's copper deposits are located closest to which of the following areas:
A) Santiago in Middle Chile
B) the Atacama Desert
C) Tierra del Fuego
D) the Amazon River
E) the border with Uruguay
71. Which of the following statements is false?
A) Brazil is the largest country in South America.
B) The Northeast is Brazil's poorest subregion.
C) Russia, Canada, China, and the United States are all larger territorially than Brazil.
D) Brazil's population is one of the fastest growing in the developing world.
E) Brazil has an ethnically diverse population
72. The most populous Brazilian State is:
A) Rio de Janeiro
B) São Paulo
D) Minas Gervais
73. Brazil's Northeast:
A) was Brazil's source area: its early plantation economy first developed here
B) today still produces most of the country's coffee crop
C) is the site of Brazil's most spectacular recent surge of economic development
D) contains the largest number of European settlers in the country
E) remains mainly Amerindian country because most of the indigenous peoples have resettled here
74. The dry inland back country in Brazil's Northeast is known as the:
A) Amazon Basin
D) inner Northwest
75. Volta Redonda is most closely identified with Brazil's:
A) iron and steel manufacturing activities
B) growing hydroelectric power production capacity
C) earliest European settlements
D) Amazonian growth poles
E) Afro-Brazilian population clusters
76. The cerrado is:
A) Brazil's coastal industrial zone
B) The Triple Frontier's dominant ethnic group
C) a booming zone of soybean production in Brazil's Interior subregion
D) the wealthiest sector of the "Latin" American city
E) the expanding Amazonian area recently cleared of rainforests
77. Rubber production has had the greatest impact on which Brazilian subregion?
A) the South
B) the Northeast
C) the Southeast
D) the Interior
E) the North
78. The current pattern of settlement of the Brazilian North:
A) has helped stem the tide of deforestation
B) is based on the expansion of the rubber industry
C) results in the widespread establishment of low-grade land use
D) is attracting large numbers in the expansion of soybean plantations
E) largely avoids the Amazon Basin and its excessively rainy Rim
79. Brazil's Polonoroeste Plan has called for settlement near the border with:
80. A growth pole is:
A) an established manufacturing center that dominates a substantial hinterland
B) any large city in a national core area
C) a location where a set of activities, given a start, will grow, setting off ripples of development in a surrounding area
D) a location, now in decline, that served as a focal point for a developing region in the past
E) a high-technology field instrument that precisely measures a locality's economic growth