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Desert

Has dry soil, and is very rock/sandy. Has cacti and snakes, small rodents, lizards, and some birds. Animals have large ears. Very little rainfall.

Grasslands

Only grass and shrubs, no trees. Wildfires are common. Plants have long, extended root systems. There is a rich soil, and moderate precipitation. Animals include bison, large cats, grazing animals like zebra, and rodents like prairie dogs.

Tundra

Know to be the coldest of all land biomes. It has terrible soil, and little precipitation. Plants have darker shades of color, and grow close to the ground. Include lichens, cottongrass, and small shrubs. Animals include bears, rodents, some birds, and fox. They either have thick fur or blubber, can blend in, or hibernate.

Taiga

Known for snow, and evergreen (coniferous) trees. It is the largest biome. The colors of plants and animals are darker. The tree's leaves are needle-like, and never stop doing photosynthesis. Animals and adaptations are relatively the same to the Tundra.

Tropical Rain forest

It is the wettest biome, and gets the most rainfall. There is much diversity of orgamisms, and is near the equator. The soil quality is poor, so plants get energy from decomposing animals and plants. Most animals, such as monkeys, snakes, and insects live on trees.

Deciduous (Temperate) Forest

Trees' leaves fall off in autumn, when they stop doing photosynthesis. Good soil quality, good rainfall, and four seasons. Plants are mainly trees, and they have adapted by growing broad leaves. Animals are the usual forest animals: moose, fox, wolves, raccoon, etc. Birds migrate in winter, and and other animals hibernate.

Freshwater

Includes ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, and estuaries.

Marine

Includes open ocean, seashore, and it covers 75% of the planet. There is a very high salinity level, and a wide variety of animals.

Permafrost

Frozen soil just below regular soil in the tundra. Stops trees from growing, by preventing them from plantng their roots deep enough.

Phytoplankton

Minute microorganisms that can do photosynthesis. They are at the base of the food chain.

Four factors that affect Climate

Precipitation, elevation, temperature, latitude

Climate

The overall weather pattern over a particular area

Temperature

Sunlight heats the ground and air, warming it or making it cooler when not present

Latitude

The sun's rays strike the earth at different angles, so a wider or smaller range and intensity vary on the latitude. The poles have a wider range, but less intensity. It is the opposite as you come near the equator.

Elevation

Gravity affects air molecules as well. Molecules that are closer to the ocean give off more thermal energy than at the top of a mountain. Hence, it is warmer at the base of the mountain than at it's peak, where it is much colder.

Precipitation

The amount of rain, snow, fog, hail, sleet, etc. an area receives. Depends on the other three factors.

Estuaries

The lower end of a river, where it meets ocean. Saltwater and freshwater mix here. Estuaries are known to be very productive.

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