Biology Chapter 19

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How many major groups of plants are there?

4

What do all plants have in common?

eukaryotic, multicellular, photosynthetic, cell walls with cellulose, embryo develops in female

What is the origin of plants from algae based on?

molecular, cellular, and anatomical comparisons

multi-cellular green algae

charophytes

What did plants originate from?

charophytes

What did plants adapt to?

life on land

Why are charophytes different from plants?

plants adapted to life on land

What did plants have to do to adapt to life on land?

obtain resources from air and soil, stay upright, maintain moisture, reproduce

What adaptation did plants have to make to obtain resources from air and soil?

vascular tissue

What adaptation did plants have to make to stay upright?

develop lignin

What adaptation did plants have to make to maintain moisture?

form cuticle and stomates

What adaptation did plants have to make to reproduce?

form protective jacket to prevent drying out and for dispersal of seeds; pollen

What is a mechanism for sperm to get to egg without water?

pollen

What are the 4 major periods of plant evolution?

origin of plants from charophytes, development of lignin and vascular tissue, origin of the seed, origin of angiosperms

What was the 1st group of plants on land?

bryophytes

What is an example of a bryophyte?

moss

do not have seeds, lignin, or vascular tissue

bryophytes

What were the 2nd group of plants on land?

pteridophytes

What is an example of a pteridophyte?

fern

early vascular plant that lacked seeds

pteridophytes

an embryo packaged along with a store of food within a protective coat

seed

What contributed to spread of plants to diverse habitats and land?

seeds

allowed embryos to be dispersed without drying out

seeds

What was the 3rd group of plants?

gymnosperms

What is an example of gymnosperms?

cone-bearing trees

What type of seeds did gymnosperms have?

naked seeds

What is an example of angiosperms?

flowering plants

What did angiosperms have that no plant before it had?

ovaries and fruit

plant with ovaries and fruit

angiosperms

generations alternate between diploid and haploid

alternation of generation

What are the 2 distinct multicellular generations in the alternation of generations?

gametophytes and sporophytes

haploid generation in alternation of generations

gametophytes

diploid generation in alternation of generations

sporophytes

How do gametophytes grow?

from spores by mitosis

What does the gametophyte generation do?

makes haploid gametes that fuse and form zygotes

How do sporophytes grow?

by mitosis from zygote

What does the sporophyte generation do?

makes haploid spores by meiosis

What 2 ways can spores differ from gametes?

can develop into new organism without fusing with another cell, have tough coats enabling them to resist harsh conditions

Why does a spore differ from a gamete when it develops a new organism without fusing with another cell?

2 gametes must fuse to form a zygote

Why does a spore differ from a gamete when it forms a tough coat enabling it to resist harsh conditions?

gametes not able to resist harsh conditions

multicellular autotroph in which the embryo develops within the female gametophyte

plant

system of tube-shaped cells that branches throughout a plant and transports water, mineral nutrients, and organic molecules

vascular tissue

chemical that hardens certain plant cell walls

lignin

waxy coating on the leaves and other aboveground parts of plants that helps the plant retain water

cuticle

microscopic pores in a leaf's surface

stomata

in flowering plants, protective organ inside a flower that bears seeds

ovary

haploid generation of a plant; produces gametes

gametophyte

diploid generation of a plant; produces spores

sporophyte

alternation between gametophyte and sporophyte in the life cycle of a plant

alternation of generations

plant, such as a moss, lacking lignin-hardened vascular tissue

bryophyte

member of a group of seedless vascular plants with lignin-hardened support tissues that includes ferns

pteridophyte

plant that bears seeds that are not enclosed in an ovary

gymnosperm

much-reduced male gametophyte of seed plants that contains cells that develop into sperm

pollen

plant embryo packaged along with a food supply within a protective coat

seed

structure in seed plants in which the female gametophyte develops

ovule

flowering plant

angiosperm

specialized plant shoot that functions in reproduction; unique to angiosperms

flower

male reproductive organ of a flower

stamen

female reproductive organ of a flower

carpel

nutrient-storing tissue that nourishes the developing embryo of a plant

endosperm

ripened ovary of a flower

fruit

What are some examples of bryophytes?

mosses, liverworts, hornworts

Where do bryophytes grow?

damp areas

a pioneer species of plant

bryophytes

contain no lignin or vascular tissue

bryophytes

What generation is dominant in bryophytes?

gametophyte

How do the sperm get to the egg in bryophytes?

swim

Where are gametes produced in bryophytes?

tips of gametophyte

What happens once the egg is fertilized in bryophytes?

sporophyte grows from gametophyte

stalk-like structure that grows out of gametophyte

sporophyte

What are some examples of pteridophytes?

ferns, horsetails

What formed fossil fuels?

ancient pteridophytes

1st type of plant to have lignin-hardened vascular tissue

pteridophyte

What is the dominant generation in pteridophytes?

sporophyte

How are gametophytes grown in pteridophytes?

spore capsule on underside releases haploid spores

What contains sperm and egg producing structures on underside of pteridophytes?

gametophytes

How do sperms fertilize eggs in pteridophytes?

swim

What does the zygote grow into in pteridophytes?

new sporophyte

What are some examples of gymnosperms?

conifers, cycads, gnetophytes

What additional adaptations for survival did gymnosperms develop?

smaller gametophyte, pollen, seeds

What reproductive structure do gymnosperms have?

cones

What reproductive structure in gymnosperms produces gametophytes?

cones

What is the dominant generation in gymnosperms?

sporophyte

male gametophyte that contains sperm producing structures

pollen

How do sperms get to egg in gymnosperms?

carried by wind

structures from which female gametophytes develop

ovules

What are the 2 groups of angiosperms?

monocots, dicots

What are the reproductive structures of flowers?

specialized type of shoot

Where does the gametophyte develop in angiosperms?

within flowers of sporophyte

male reproductive organ in flowers

stamen

What part of the stamen produces pollen grains containing male gametophytes in flowers?

anther (tip)

female reproductive organ in flowers

carpels

What does the base of the carpel in flowers contain?

ovary

What develops in the ovary of a flower?

gametophytes

nutrient storing tissue that nourishes the developing plant embryo

endosperm

What produces a fruit?

ovary wall thickens

ripened or mature ovary of a flower

fruit

protect and disperse seeds

fruit

provide food that supports human life

angiosperms

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