EMS Life Science End of the Year Cummulative Review Questions

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EXPERIMENT

You are studying protist in the lab. You should not draw a conclusion about your work until after you conduct an ________________________.

HYPOTHESIS

The _____________is your "educated guess" when using the scientific method.

WATER AND CARBON DIOXIDE

During photosynthesis, plant-like protists take in _________ & _________ and in the presence of sunlight create oxygen and sugar.

SUGARS

All words that end in -ose represent what in science?
Hint: think about the word - glucose

CHLOROPLASTS

Photosynthesis takes place where inside the plant cell?

PHYTOPLANKTON

What specific type of organism creates about 60% of the world's oxygen?

ATP; WATER AND CARBON DIXOIDE

In cellular respiration, organisms take in sugar and oxygen and convert it to ___ - which is the energy molecule they need to live. The byproducts of this reaction are _____________ & _______________.

MITOCHONDRIA

Cellular respiration occurs inside the ____________.

1. CELL WALL
2. CHLOROPLASTS
3. LARGE VACUOLE (CENTRAL VACUOLE)

Name three things found in plant cells that are NOT found in animal cells:

DNA

What is another name for "genetic material"?

6

If unwound and tied together, the strands of DNA from just ONE cell would stretch out to about ____ feet? This "string" of DNA would only be 50 trillionths of an inch wide though!

6000

If you unwound ALL of the DNA in your body and tied them together - you would have enough "DNA string" to go the moon _________times!

EAT (CONSUME)

Food chains show how matter & energy are transferred from one organism to the next as they __________ one another.

PRODUCERS

What type of organisms will always be found at the beginning of food chains because of their ability to convert energy from the sun into stored chemical energy?

DECOMPOSERS

What type of organisms will be found at the end of food chains, because of their ability to break down dead and decaying oraganic matter?

ASEXUALLY AND SEXUALLY

How do protists reproduce?

ASEXUAL (FISSION)

Which type of protist reproduction involves only one parent?

SEXUAL (CONJUGATION)

Which type of protist reproduction involves 2 parents sharing genetic material?

PROKARYOTE

A ______________is a cell with no nucleus and no other membrane-bound organelles.

EUKARYOTE

a ______________is a cell with a nucleus and membrane-covered organelles.

EUKARYA

Most protists are simple, single-celled organisms that belong in which domain?

PLANT-LIKE

You are studying a pond water sample under a microscope. You see a single-celled organism with a cell nucleus and some green irregularly shaped organelles floating in the cytoplasm. Which type of protist are you most likely observing?

CHLOROPLAST

Animal cells cannot use energy from the sun to make food because they lack a _____________.

OSTRICH

The egg yolk from an ________ egg is the largest cell. They can be up to 6 inches long!

CELL MEMBRANE

What part of the cell actually allows osmosis and diffusion to occur?

RIBOSOMES

If a cell is not producing proteins, which organelle would you suspect is not functioning properly?

PRODUCERS

What role do algae play in a food chain?

CONSUMERS

What role do animal-like protists play in a food chain?

DECOMPOSERS

What role do fungus-like protist play in a food chain?

PROTIST

To what kingdom does an orgaism belong that is a eukaryote - but is NOT a plant, fungus, or animal?

OSMOSIS AND DIFFUSION

How do single-celled organisms like bacteria and protists actually take in the water and nutrients they need to survive?

CELL WALL

The cell structure that makes a plant cell more rigid than an animal cell is the:

Active transport

Cells use energy to move substances across the cell membrane in what process?

OTHER PRE-EXISTING CELLS

According to cell theory - where do all cells come from?

NUCLEUS

The "control center" of a cell is the ________.

MITOCHONDRIA AND CHLOROPLAST

What two organelles are associated with the production and storage/release of energy?

LARGE VACUOLE

What part of a plant cell could be considered a "storgae tank"?

ENERGY (ATP)

If cell "A" has more mitochondria than cell "B", it is likely that cell "A" is making more _________than cell "B".

LYSOSOMES

Which organelle contains digestive enzymes?

PRODUCERS

Other than the decomposer themselves - who benefits the MOST from the products of decomposers?

1. SUNLIGHT
2. CHLOROPLASTS
3. WATER
4. CARBON DIOXIDE

Photsynthesis is the way producers make food. What 4 things are always needed for photosynthesis to start?

BACTERIA AND FUNGUS-LIKE PROTISTS

The earth would be covered in garbage and waste without what two organisms from the first two units?

PASSIVE

Osmosis and diffusion are examples of ________transport, because they do not require energy.

EVOLVED

Some scientists think that protists _________ (changed over time) from ancient single-celled bacteria.

SUN

The beginning source of energy for almost every food chain on earth is the ______.

1. ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION
2. LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION

What are the two ways for a cell to release the energy stored in sugars in the absence of oxygen?

ALGAE

_________is the generic term for ALL plant-like protists.

PROTOZOA

__________is the generic term for ALL animal-like protists.

FIRST ANIMAL

Protozoa actually means:

1. CILIA
2. FLAGELLA
3. PSEUDOPODS
4. BY ATTACHING TO A HOST

Animal like protists are consumers and must be able to go get their food. Name 4 ways that protozoa can move about to consume energy:

FALSE FOOT

What does "pseudopod" mean?

CYTOPLASM

What is the name for the gel-like substance inside the cell? The organelles and materials needed for survival float in this substance.

HETEROTROPH

The scientific word for a consumer is:

AUTOTROPH

The scientific word for a porducer is:

1. Cells carry out the basic functions of life
2. All organisms are made up of one or more cells.
3. Cells come from existing cells.

What are the three concepts of the cell theory?

Huge expanses of algae are called ____ _____.

Algal Blooms

MUTUALISM

A symbiotic relationship in which BOTH organisms benefit is called _________

PARASITISM

A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed is called ______

Cell

Smallest unit of all living organisms.

Asexual Reproduction

Requires only one parent and offsppring are genetically identical to the parent.

DNA

Blue print of life. Genetic material found in all living organisms that contains the information for growth and development.

Scientific Method

Steps a scientist takes when conducting an experiment.

Hypothesis

An educated guess or possible explanation.

Controlled Experiment

An experiment that contains only one manipulated variable and everything else is kept the same for each group.

Variable

Only one of these in a controlled experiment. It is what the scientist deliberately changes in an experiment.

Classification

The grouping of similiar organisms.

Homeostatsis

The ability to maintain a stable internal environment.

Taxonomy

The science of classifying organisms and giving each a scientific name.

Dichotomous Key

A tool scientist use to identify unknown organisms.

Bacteria

Type of organisms divided into two kingdoms: Archaebacteria and Eubacteria. Simple unicellular organisms that have no nucleus.

Binary Fission

Type of asexual reproduction in which a unicellular organisms divides into two unicellular organisms that are identical.

Diffusion

Tendency of molecules to move from an area of High concentration to Low concentration. NO ENERGY NEEDED.
Example: Osmosis

Prokaryotic Cells

Cell with no nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles.

Theory

Scientific idea that is supported by large amounts of evidence and experimentation.

Osmosis

The diffusion of WATER across a cell membrane. NO Energy Needed.

protist

Single-celled or simple, multi-cellular organisms. Any eukaryote that is not a fungi, plant or animal is placed in this kingdom.

nucleus

Membrane-covered organelle that contains DNA and controls all activities within the cells

cell membrane

The outer layer of a cell that allows needed materials to enter and leave the cell

cell wall

A structure found in plant cells that surrounds the cell and provides strength and support for the cell

ribosomes

Small organelles in which proteins are made from amino acids

mitochondria

Cell organelle in which food molecules are broken down to make ATP for the cell (energy)

chloroplast

An organelle found in the cells of producers where photosynthesis occurs

lysosome

An organelle that digests and removes food particles, waste, and foreign invaders within a cell

consumer

heterotrophs - organisms that get their energy from another source

producer

autotrophs - organisms that make their own food through photosynthesis

decomposer

also heterotrophs - organisms that get their energy by decaying and then absorbing nutrients from dead organic matter

eukaryote

Describes an organism in which all cells contain a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles

Organelle

membrane bound structure inside a cell that performs a specific function

Symbiosis

a long-term relationship between different kinds of organisms

mutualism

symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship

parasitism

A symbiotic relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed

vacuole

a large membrane covered structure found in plant cells and some protists that serves as a storage container for water and other liquids

Golgi body

the cell organelle that modifies, packages, and transports proteins and other materials out of the cell

Where would you locate a gene?

Genes are located on the chromosome

Where can the genetic material known as DNA be found in eukaryotic cells?

Inside the nucleus

What is the role of RNA?

To receive information from DNA and send it to the ribosome to make proteins

If brown eyes is a dominant trait (B)over blue eyes (b), is it possible for two brown eyed parents to have a child with blue eyes? Why or why not?

Yes, if both parents are carriers of the blue trait (heterozygous).

Is it possible for an individual to have different alleles for the same trait?

Yes, the genotype would be heterozygous. (Ex: Tt or Bb)

How can a person predict possible outcomes between a cross of two parents.

Use a Punnett Square

Where are proteins made?

Ribosomes

Which of the following is an inherited trait?

A) Ability to swim
B) Being overweight
C) Speaking English
D) Having bushy eyebrows

D) Having bushy eyebrows

A process in which two parent produce offspring that are genetically different is called _______.

Sexual reproduction

Give three examples of asexual reproduction

Binary fission, fragmentation, Budding (shown above)

Process by which humans change the DNA sequence of an organism thru lab procedures

Genetic Engineering or Genetic Manipulation

A long chain of amino acids makes a ______

Protein

When two alleles are identical, the genotype is said to be

homozygous

A trait that always occurs when one allele is present is

dominant

How many chromosomes are found in a gamete?

Half the number (In humans 23).

The process that makes sex cells is called

Meiosis

Another name for sex cells is _______

gametes

Brown eyes is dominant over blue eyes. What percent of the offspring would have brown eyes if you crossed two heterozygous parents.

75%

Name the three possible genotypes

heterozygous, homozygous dominant, homozygous recessive

An inherited trait that is expressed called a

phenotype

What form of reproduction is common in bacteria?

Binary fission

Why do farmers and breeders practice selective breeding?

To produce organisms with desirable traits

Each version of a particular gene is called

an allele

A breed of cow has a milk producing gene that can result in high volume, M, or low volume, m. what genotype will result in a cow that produces a low volume of milk?

mm (homozygous recessive)

If a species has 40 pairs of chromosomes, how many chromosomes would it's sperm cell have?

20

How much genetic material would you find in a cloned cell as compared to an original cell?

a) double b) half c)same
d) no way of knowing

c) same

A ______________ allele is one that is expressed only when two copies of it are present on the homologs.

recessive

Red flowers are dominant to white. If a plant is heterozygous, what would be its genotype?

Rr

In guinea pigs, black fur is dominant to white. If a guinea pig is hybrid, what would be its genotype?

Bb

In cats, a long haired coat is dominant to a short haired coat. What would be the genotype of a cat that has a short coat?

ll

desert

a hot or cold region that receives less than 25 centimeters of rain per year

adaptation

a characteristic that helps an organism survive in its environment and reproduce

savanna

a tropical grassland with scattered clumps of trees; found in the tropical wet-and-dry climate zone close to the equator

tundra

an extremely cold, dry biome with permafrost

estuary

a habitat in which the fresh water of a river meets the salt water of the ocean

vestigial organ

organ that serves no useful function in an organism, scientists believe it is a "leftover" from a primitive ancestor

generation time

the period between the birth of one generation and the birth of the next generation

natural selection

the process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less well adapted individuals do

Biotic

the living factors which affect the system - for example predators or food supply

Abiotic

the non-living factors which affect the system - for example weather, natural disasters, drought ....

nitrogen cycle

the transfer of nitrogen from the atmosphere to the soil, to living organisms, and back to the atmosphere

carbon-oxygen cycle

the process in which carbon and oxygen cycle amoung plants, animals, and the enviroment

water cycle

the continuous process by which water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back

evaporation

the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas

condensation

the process by which molecules of water vapor in the air become liquid water

precipitation

the falling to earth of any form of water (rain or snow or hail or sleet or mist)

energy pyramid

A way of showing how energy is lost as it moves along the food chain

food chain

a chain of organisms in which each link feeds on the one ahead and is eaten by the one behind

food web

way of showing how food chains are related

predator

animal that hunts and eats other animals

symbiosis

a relationship in which two different organisms live in close association with each other

Mutualism

symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship

Commensalism

a symbiotic relationship in which one member is benefited and the second is neither harmed nor benefited

Parasitism

a symbiotic relationship whereby one organism/species benefits from the relationship and the other organism is harmed

Prey

an organism that is killed and eaten by another organism

freshwater

water that is not salty or has minute traces of salt

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