System or process by which the products or results of learning are stored for future use.
Stimuli used to study memory; typically composed of a consonant-vowel-consonant sequence.
Learning procedures in which material that has been learned must be repeated in the order in which it was presented; also known as ordered recall.
Learning procedure in which items to be recalled are learned in pairs. During recall, one member of the pair is presented and the other is to be recalled.
Learning procedure in which material that has been learned may be repeated in any order.
Tendency for items at the beginning and end of a list to be learned better than items in the middle.
Serial position effect
Test in which retention is measured by the ability to pick out previously learned items from a list that also contains unfamiliar items.
Difference between the time or trials originally required to learn material and the time or trials required to relearn the material; also known as relearning score.
First stage of the memory process; in it information is transformed or coded (a transduction process) into a form that can be processed further and stored.
Second stage of the memory process; in it information is placed in the memory system. This stage may involve either brief or long-term storage of memories.
Third stage of the memory process; in it stored memories are brought into consciousness.
Aform of memory, often called photographic memory, which consists of especially vivid visual recollections of material.
Very brief (0.5 to 1.0 second for visual stimuli and 2 and 3 seconds for auditory stimuli) but extensive memory for sensory events.
Memory stages in which information is held in consciousness for 10 to 20 seconds.
Short-term memory (STM)
Second stage of short-term memory ;in it attention and conscious effort are brought to bear on material.
Memory stage that has a very large capacity and the capability to store information relatively permanently.
Long-term memory (LTM)
Rehearsal used when we want to save or maitain a memory for a specificied period of time.
Rehearsal in which meaning is added to the material to be remembered.
Situation in which previously learned information hinders the recall of information learned more recently.
Situation in which information learned more recently hinders the recall of information learned previously.
Therory stating that deeper processing of information increases the like ihood that the information will be recalled.
Memory for making responses and performing skilled actions.
Memory for general knowledge.
Condition of being almost,but not quite, able to remember something; used to investigate the nature of semantic memory.
Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon (TOT)
Memory of one's personal experiences.
Very detailed memory of an arousing, surprising, or emotional situation.
Unconscious memory processing in which prior exposure to stimulus items may aid subsequent learning.
Priming or implicit memory
Network of concepts that are linked together.
Grouping or cluster of knowledge about an object or sequence of events.
Theory stating that the effectiveness of memory retrieval is directly related to the similarity of the cues present when the memory was encoded and when the memory is retrieved.
Theory stating that when we learn something while in a specific physiiological state, our recall of when we are in the same physiological state.
Procedures for associating new information with previously stored memories.
Use of familliar locations as cues to recall items that have been asociated with them.
Method of loci
Use of familiar words or names as cues to recall items that have been associated with them.
A word formed by the initial letter(s) of the items to be remembered.
A verse or a saying in which the first letter(s) of each word stands for a bit of information.
Loss of memory that occurs as a result of psychological trauma.
Inability to store new memories after a traumatic event.
Loss of memories that were stored before a trauma event.
Hypothesis that memories must be consolidated or set before they can be stored.
Test of retention that compares the time or trials required to learn material a second time with the time or trials required to learn the materials the first time.
the configuration of smaller units of information into large coordinated units