Combo Research Test 1

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Combo Research Test 1

amount of touch

Is the psychological well-being of patients affected by the amount of touch received from nursing staff? Independent variable

Psychological Well being

Is the psychological well-being of patients affected by the amount of touch received from nursing staff? Dependent variable

Education preparation

Is the education preparation of nurses related to their subsequent turnover rate? Independent variable

Turnover

Is the education preparation of nurses related to their subsequent turnover rate? Dependent variable

Pediatric or Adult ICU assignments

Are levels of stress among nurses higher in pediatric or adult intensive care units? Independent Variable

Stress levels

Are levels of stress among nurses higher in pediatric or adult intensive care units? Dependent Variable

A

The dependent variable(s) in the study, "Is the job performance of nurse affected by salary or perceived job autonomy?" is/are
a. Job performance
c. perceived job autonomy
b. Salary
d. both salary & perceived job autonomy

C

The independent variable in the study, What is the effect of noise levels on postoperative pain or blood pressure fluctuations in ICU patients "" is
a. blood pressure
c. noise levels
b.ICU patients
d. postoperative pain

C

If a researcher unobtrusively studies interaction among patients in a psychiatric hospital, which ethical principle may be violated?
a. Confidentiality
b. Freedom from harm
c. right to self-determination
d. all of the above

D

Vulnerable subjects would include
a. Women hospitalized for a mastectomy
b. Members of a senior citizens' group
c. people with a speech impediment
d. pediatric patients

False

The last major transgression of ethical principles in the conduct of research occurred in the experiments conducted by the Nazis.
True/False

False

Guaranteeing confidentiality to a study participant means that the researcher could never link the information gathered to the person who supplied the information
True/False

A

First-born infants have higher concentration of estrogens and progesterone in umbilical cord blood than do later- born infants.
a. Research hypothesis- directional
b. research hypothesis non-directional
c. null hypothesis
d. not a hypothesis stated

C

There is no relationship between participation in prenatal classes and the health outcomes
of infants.
a. Research hypothesis- directional
b. research hypothesis non-directional
c. null hypothesis
d. not a hypothesis stated

D

Nursing students are increasingly interested in obtaining advanced degrees.
a. Research hypothesis- directional
b. research hypothesis non-directional
c. null hypothesis
d. not a hypothesis stated

B

A person's age is related to his or her difficulty in accessing health care.
a. Research hypothesis- directional
b. research hypothesis non-directional
c. null hypothesis
d. not a hypothesis stated

B

Nurses' job satisfaction is correlated with levels of occupational stress.
a. Research hypothesis- directional
b. research hypothesis non-directional
c. null hypothesis
d. not a hypothesis stated

C

Nurses' experience with abortion patients has no effect on the nurses' attitudes toward abortion.
a. Research hypothesis- directional
b. research hypothesis non-directional
c. null hypothesis
d. not a hypothesis stated

B

Nurses' shift assignments are associated with their rates of absenteeism.
a. Research hypothesis- directional
b. research hypothesis non-directional
c. null hypothesis
d. not a hypothesis stated

C

Beginning researchers typically develop problems that are too:
a. Insignificant
c. broad in scope
b. Non-theoretical
d. unsearchable

B

Identify the most influential event that led to the HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects:
a. Nuremberg trials
b. Syphilis Study at Tuskegee
c. Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital Study
d. Willowbrook Study

C

What are the three ethical principles that constitute the basis for the HHS Human Subjects Regulations (45 CFR 46)?
A. Honesty, Trust, Respect
B. Informed consent, IRB review, Research Integrity
C. Respect for Persons, Beneficence, Justice
D. Protections for Pregnant Women, Prisoners, Children

A

Which entity has regulatory authority for the protection of human subjects for PHS-funded research?
A. OHRP
B. NIH
C. Institutions that receive Federal funds
D. HHS

False

True or False: All research that involves interaction or intervention with humans or human samples/data, whether they are alive or dead, is human subjects research.

True

True or False: An institutionally designated authority, other than the investigator, should determine that proposed studies are exempt from regulatory requirements.

D

Which of the following should be eliminated or minimized in the research design?
A. Coercion
B. Research risks
C. Repeated recruitment of research participants for new protocols
D. All of the above

D

When might human subjects research require investigators to obtain informed consent?
A. Investigators must obtain informed consent if the study involves interactions with research participants.
B. Investigators must obtain informed consent if the study involves interventions with research participants.
C. Investigators must obtain informed consent if the study involves collection of private information from or about research participants.
D. All of the above

False

True or False: After informed consent for a research study is given, a research participant must complete the study.

True

True or False: In general, informed consent should be a process rather than a one-time event.

C

In order to participate in research, children must ...
A. Provide written informed consent
B. Provide written permission
C. Provide assent, unless the IRB determines that they are too young
D. Sign, or put an "X" on the assent document

D

For research involving pregnant women, participation requires ...
A. That women have completed the first trimester.
B. That the study be conducted first in men.
C. Permission of the father.
D. Consideration of risks and potential benefits for the fetus and the pregnant woman.

D

Why might an individual have diminished autonomy?
A. They are a neonate.
B. They are incarcerated or
involuntarily confined.
C. They are unconscious.
D. All of the above.

False

True or False: Risks to research participants must be completely eliminated for the study to be considered ethical.

C

When are researchers specifically required by NIH policy to describe Data and Safety Monitoring?
A. For all research involving human subjects
B. For all research involving children as subjects in research
C. For all clinical trials
D. For all research with prisoners

True

True or False: There must be equipoise in order to justify conducting a clinical trial.

D

What is an appropriate method for maintaining confidentiality of private information obtained from human subjects?
A. Keeping data in a password-protected database
B. Storing images in a secured cabinet
C. Coding data or specimens and keeping the key to the code in a separate, locked drawer
D. All of the above are ways to maintain confidentiality

False

True or False: If a researcher determines that his/her study poses no more than minimal risk as defined in 45 CFR 46, there is no need for the protocol to have IRB review and approval.

C

Children must be included in all NIH-supported human subjects research unless:
A. The researcher is not a pediatrician
B. Past experience has shown it is time-consuming and expensive to recruit children
C. There are scientific and ethical reasons to exclude them
D. The researcher does not possess the pediatric equipment necessary to involve children in the proposed research

true

True or False: For HIV antiretroviral treatment trials conducted in developing countries, the NIH expects investigators/contractors to address the provision of antiretroviral treatment to trial participants after their completion of participation in the clinical trial.

B

Which of the following is TRUE regarding applications for NIH-funded research overseas?
A. It is illegal to spend NIH funds in research overseas
B. Research conducted overseas is subject to HHS Human Subjects Regulations (45 CFR 46) and local regulations and policies
C. Research conducted overseas is only subject to local regulations and policies
D. Research conducted overseas need not address human subjects protections

D

In localities where community consent is the norm,
A. A family member's consent for another individual may be sufficient, as long as community consent is given
B. Federal regulations preclude the conduct of PHS-funded research
C. Community consent to participate in the research study is sufficient and no IRB approval is required
D. In addition to the cultural norm, individual informed consent is required

nonmaleficence

Definition: obligation to avoid, prevent, minimize harm; subjects must not be subjected to unnecessary risk for harm or discomfort

true

True or false; Focus of research must help achieve science and societal importance that could not otherwise be achieved

Nuremberg Code

Written in 1948 in response to the Nazi human experiments

true

The first code in nuremberg codes requires voluntary consent of the human subject true or false

willowbrook

Studies done in 1963 that exposed children to hepatitis

Tuskegee

Studies done 1932-1972 that infected black men with syphilis

Therapeutic

Which type of research; when treating patients, physicians must be free to use new unproven therapeutic measures if doing so offers hope of saving life, restoring health, or alleviating suffering

beneficence

Definition: Doing no harm OR refraining from exploitation of study participants, promoting individual and societal benefits that are directly related to participation in research

respect for persons

Definition: Right to self-determination (autonomy) and right to full disclosure (fully informed consent for research participation

Justice

Definition: Right to privacy and right to fair treatment (research participation)

institutional review board

Definition: Committee to safeguard and formally assess human subjects in research; reviews research protocols for compliance with ethical standards

exploitation

Having subjects complete an interview when they are reluctant is an example of

exploitation

Failure to obtain active consent is an example of

respect to persons

Right to full information, Right to self Determination, Must have full disclosure; this is describing which aspect of IRB

informed consent

Full disclosure, signed document of agreement to participate; this is describing which aspect of IRB

anonymous

Researcher has no way to link the information for study participants with the data provided; this is describing anonymous or confidential

confidential

Researcher does not link the identity of the participants for study subject with data; this is anonymous or confidential

true

Identifying information must be destroyed when possible and as soon as feasible; true or false

exempt

If research involves no more than minimal risk to humans; The IRB is considered what level

FULL

Committee meets, must have 5 members (1 non-researcher), A mix of backgrounds; this describes what level of IRB

expedited

Research involving no more than minimal risk can use this procedure; this describes what level of IRB

true

Didactic and clinical knowledge, understanding of pathophysiology, ability to analyze literature; these are all requirements for EBP. true or false

Cochrane Collaboration

Helps providers make good decisions about health care by preparing and disseminating systematic reviews of the effects of health care interventions: this is known as the

7

How many levels are there in the melnyk-fineout-overholt triangle

RCTs

Definition: draws conclusions about the effects of health care interventions

systemic review

Definition: A methodical, scholarly inquiry that follows many of the same steps as those for primary studies; evidence drive, done by researchers

Meta analysis

Definition: A method of integrating quantitative findings statistically. In essence, it treats the findings from a study as one piece of information. The findings from multiple studies on the same topic are combined and analyzed statistically

necessity

Clinical practice guidelines are driven by

stetler model, Iowa model, diffusion of innovations theory

3 models of EBP

stetler model

Organizations and teams, this describes which model of EBP

Iowa Model

Promotes quality of care, this describes what model of EBP

identify a problem

what is the first step of the research process

universal

Beliefs assumed to be true by a large percentage of society (all humans need love) this is an example of what type of assumption

derived from theory of previous research

Example: stress causes disease; this is what type of assumption

specific to a certain study

3rd type of assumption

hypothesis

Definition: predicts the relationship between two or more variables

theory

Definition: an abstract generalization that presents a systemic explanation about the relationships among phenomena

directional

What type of hypothesis predicts relationship

Null

what type of hypothesis predicts no relationship

pediatric tonsillectomy patients between 2 and 10 years of age

Identify population

intraoperative acetaminophen

Identify Intervention

placebo

Identify comparison

decreased need for supplemental opioid administration

Identify outcome

in PACU

Identify Time

quantitative

Definition: research that is concerned with objectivity, it is measurable, tight control over the research situation

qualitative

Definition: concerned with the subjective meaning of an experience to an individual

experimental

Definition: investigator plays an active role and has more control over the research

non experimental

Definition: collects data about something without manipulating anything

target

The universe; this is what type of population

accessible

Those that are actually available to the study; this is what type of population

Sample

Definition: subgroup of the population

IRB

If conducting research with human subjects what must be obtained

IRB

Definition: assures subjects of their human rights

pilot study

Definition: a miniature version of the planned study

Data

Definition: pieces of information or facts that are collected in a research study

basic research

Definition: information for the sake of knowledge

applied research

Definition: discovering solutions to immediate problems

research problem

Definition: a perplexing situation that a researcher wants to address through disciplined inquiry

Anxiety

What is the independent variable

Midterm examination scores

What is the dependent variable

readiness to learn about diabetes

What is the Dependent variable

length of time with diabetes

What is the independent variable

Descriptive

What type of study is this

Correlational

What type of study is this

experimental

What type of study is this

Knowledge

What is the Dependent variable

simulator training

What is the independent variable

researcher, principle investigator

Definition: person who conducts the study (2)

concepts

What are abstraction called in quantitative research

phenomena

what are abstractions called in qualitative research

variables

In quantitative research, concepts are called

homogeneous

Type of variable that groups that have limited variability

heterogeneous

type of variable that groups are varied

independent variable

Definition: observed, introduced or manipulated to determine the effect it has on another variable

dependent variable

Definition: observed for change or under investigation- the outcome is variable. It is the behavior or characteristic that the researcher is interested in explaining, predicting or affecting

Prevalence of cigarette smoking

What is the dependent variable

cultural group

What is the independent variable

Anxiety

What is the dependent variable

control

What is the independent variable

Headaches

What is the dependent variable

Substance abuse

What is the dependent variable

non directional

Definition: type of hypothesis that predicts that a relationship does exist but does not stipulate the direction of the relationship

directional

This is directional or non directional

IMRAD

Journal article format Acronym

introduction, Method, Results, And, Discussion

IMRAD stands for

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