The science of biologicial classification.
Functions of Taxonomy
Orginization and to show evolutionary relationships.
Lived in the late 1700's, scientist, inventor of Bionomial Nomenclature and Linnaean Taxonomy.
Invented by Carolus Linnaeus, it was originally based on physical characteristics.
Levels of Linnaean Taxonomy
(In order from largest to smallest) Domain, Kingdom, Philum (phila meaning division), Class, Order, Family, Genius (genera plural), and Species. TRICK TO REMEMBER:Dirty kids put cupcakes on fat george's stoop.
Intermediate Levels of Linnaean Taxonomy
The prefixes Sub- and Super- are used in order to make up intermediate groupings in Linnaean Taxonomy. Sub- and Super- are prefixes which allow for classes between usual classes. EXAMPLE: A Sub-Family is a more specific group than a famiy, but it is less specific than a genius.
Factors for determining catagorization
Linnaeus used mostly physical characteristics to deterimine which catoragory each individual was placed in. Now we use embryologicical data, biochemical data, and genetic data, in addition to physical characteristics in order to classify individuals into classes.
Numerical taxonomy is a more specific type of taxonomy than linnaean taxonomy and it looks at all of the characteristics of individuals, quantifies these characteristics, and uses computers to look for patterns in order to classify these individuals.
Results of Numericial Taxonomy
The results of numericial taxonomy is that it was very similar to Linnaean taxonomy and the two systems have been combined today in order to have the classification system we have today.
The type of scientific naming system we currenty use today. It was developed by Carolus Linnaeus. It uses two part names the first is the genius and the second is the species. EXAMPLE: The Genius is similar to a last name such as Smith and the Genius is representing a first name such as Joe, however although there may be more than one Joe Smith in the world(BUT NONE LIKE MR. SMITH!), no two species can have the same scientific name. The scientific naming system is not indiginous to any particular area of the world, but is rather used all across the world.
The Number of Kingdoms
Originally there were 2 kingdoms plant and animal, these were developed by Carolus Linnaeus. Now there are 5 different kingdoms in which organisms are classified.
Plants, Animals, Monera, Protista, Fungi TRICK TO REMEMBER: Poor animals made perfect food.
Multicelluar, photosynthetic eukaryotes with complex embryos.
Multicelluar heterotrophic eukaryotes that are motile at some stage of development.
Made up of prokaryotic organisms; bacteria and their reletives.
Eukaryotes that don't fit neatly into any other kingdom (The Kingdom of Misfit Toys).
Mostly multicelluar eukaryotes that are either decomposers or parasites.
Is a recently added level of taxonomy, which is broader than a kingdom.
Types of Domains
Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, and Eukarya
Ancient bacteria that live under very harsh conditions.
All eukaryotic organisms.
Is a key that is set up so that orgainisms can be identified by key characteristics.