Sympathetic nervous system

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preganglionic neurons

are located in the lateral gray horns of the spinal cord from the first thoracic to the second or third lumbar levels of the spinal cord (thoracolumbar outflow)

preganglionic axons

traverse the ventral roots of the spinal nerves and enter the ventral ramus of a spinal nerve

white communicating ramus

myelinated preganglionic axons then exit the ventral ramus as a bundle referred to as this:

sympathetic trunk

myelinated preganglionic axons then exit the ventral ramus as a bundle of white communicating ramus and enter this

paravertebral ganglia

the sympathetic trunks consist of sympathetic ganglia (referred to as this) connected by bundles of intervening preganglionic sympathetic fibers, the structure appearing like beads on a string

ganglion impar

each trunk extends from a level of the first cervical vertebra to the tip of the coccyx where they are connected to a slight enlargement that is referred to as this

sympathetic trunk

each one of these consists of three cervical sympathetic ganglia (superior, middle, inferior) eleven or twelve thoracic ganglia, four or five lumbar ganglia, and five or less sacrococcygeal ganglia.

stellate ganglion

inferior cervical ganglion is often fused with the first thoracic ganglion forming this

preganglionic fibers

when these originate in the thoracolumbar portions of the spinal cord, after entering the sympathetic trunks, they do many things

gray communicating rami

consist of unmyelinated postganglionic sympathetic fibers and are found at ALL levels

white communicating rami

are only found from T1 to L2 or L3

preganglionic fibers

pass thru the sympathetic trunk ganglia WITHOUT synapsing and travel via the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral splanchnic nerves to the prevertebral (collateral) ganglia

preganglionic fibers

pass thru all of the ganglia (paravertebral and prevertebral) and synapse with chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla (modified sympathetic ganglion cells)

gray communicating rami

post ganglionic sympathetic fibers destined for distribution within the beck, body wall, and limbs, enter all 31 sets of spinal nerves. They pass from the sympathetic trunk ganglia (paravertebral ganglia) to adjacent ventral rami of spinal nerves via these

post ganglionic sympathetic fibers

enter all branches of all 31 sets of spinal nerves including the dorsal rami (for the back)

post ganglionic sympathetic fibers

enter all branches of all 31 sets of spinal nerves including the dorsal rami (for the back) to stimulate contraction of blood vessels (vasomotor fibers)

post ganglionic sympathetic fibers

enter all branches of all 31 sets of spinal nerves including the dorsal rami (for the back) to stimulate contraction of arrector pili muscles associated with hair follicles (pilomotor fibers resulting in "goose bumps"

post ganglionic sympathetic fibers

enter all branches of all 31 sets of spinal nerves including the dorsal rami (for the back) to stimulate secretion of sweat glands (sudomotor fibers)

superior cervical ganglion

post ganglionic sympathetic fibers that perform functions in the head are called these. They reach their destinations as a periarterial plexus of nerves following the branches of the carotid arteries

preganglionic sympathetic fibers

destined for the suprarenal gland travel through the thoracic splanchnic nerves and pass through the prevertebral ganglia (collateral) WITHOUT synapsing.

chromaffin cells

secretory cells of suprarenal medulla where preganglionic sympathetic fibers terminate

chromaffin cells

modified postganglionic sympathetic neurons, release epinephrine and norepinephrine into the bloodstream producing a widespread sympathetic response

preganglionic parasympathetic fibers

have their cell bodies in the brainstem or in the second through fourth sacral levels of the spinal cord

craniosacral outflow

the second through fourth sacral levels of the spinal cord

parasympathetic innervation

there is NONE of this to the limbs, and only one know innervation to the body wall

parasympathetic ganglia

only four pairs of these located in the head

ciliary ganglion

located in the orbital cavity

pterygopalatine ganglion

located in the pterygopalatine fossa

otic ganglion

located in the infratemporal fossa

submandibular ganglion

located in the floor of the mouth

myelinated preganglionic fibers

which exit the brainstem are carried away on four cranial nerves, CN 3, 7, 9 and 10.

oculomotor nerve

ciliary ganglion

facial nerve

pterygopalatine ganglion and submandibular ganglion

glossopharyngeal nerve

otic ganglion

vagus nerve

carries approximately 75% of the bodies preganglionic parasympathetic fibers

preganglionic parasympathetic fibers

these of the vagus nerve end on minute collections of parasympathetic ganglion cells (postganglionic parasympathetic neurons) distributed through the neck, thorax, and most of the abdomen.

vagus nerve

provides innervation to all of the thoracic viscera and most of the GI tract from the esophagus to the left colic flexure (foregut and midgut derivatives).

pelvic splanchnic nerves

preganglionic parasympathetic fibers originating from cell bodies in the second thru fourth sacral spinal cord segments exit the spinal cord by way of the ventral roots and ventral rami of sacral spinal nerves S2, S3, S4

pelvic splanchnic nerves

transmit their preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to minute collections of parasympathetic ganglion cells on or close to abdominal and pelvic viscera.

pelvic splanchnic nerves

begin innervating structures where the vagus nerves leave off. involved with the innervation of the descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and all the other pelvic organs.

parasympathetic system

distributes ONLY to the head, visceral cavities of the trunk and erectile tissues. with the exception of the external genitalia, it does not reach the body wall or the limbs

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