The study of personality through interpretation of behavior or nonverbal cues. A counselor may use the aforementioned factors or tests to label the client in a diagnostic category.
His work includes strategic and problem solving therapy, often uses paradox. Influenced by Milton H. Erickson.
Pioneer in behavior therapy movement, especially in systematic desensitization. Associated with multimodal therapy.
Known for his ideas in adult cognitive development, especially college students. Came up with Dualistic thinking and Relativistic Thinking.
Concept developed by William Perry by which things are classified as good or bad, right or wrong. In other words, black or white thinking.
Not everything is right or wrong, it depends on the situation. There is more than one way to view the world. Higher order thinking than dualistic thinking, and should occur in adulthood.
His model stresses interpersonal development, is billed as a constructive model of development, meaning an individual constructs reality throughout the entire life span.
What is a common criticism of Jean Piaget's findings?
His findings were often based on his own children.
In children, which concept is the most easily understood, volume or mass?
Mass. Volume comes later, usually in Piaget's Concrete Operations Stage.
Was as odds with Piaget, and felt development did not take place naturally. Stages unfold due to educational intervention. Coined the term Zone of Proximal Development, which describes the difference between a child's performance without a teacher verses that which he or she is capable of with an instructor.John B. Watson Father of American Behaviorism.
Focused on Moral Development. Stated there are there levels, each divided into two stages. His levels: Preconventional, Conventional, and Post Conventional. Only 40% of people enter into the Post Conventional Stage in life.
Coined by Erikson, where a person suffers from knowing who they are and what they want to do. People may experience this in his stages
Harry Stack Sullivan
Came up with a stage theory for childhood development similar to Erickson, named the psychiatry of interpersonal relations. The following are the stages: infancy, childhood, the juvenile era, preadolescence, early adolescence, and late adolescence. Biological issues are less important than interpersonal and sociocultural demands of society.
Hedonism (or native hedonism)
Occurs in the second stage of the Preconventional level of Kohlberg's moral developmental theory, where a child states, "If I am nice to others, I will get what I want".
Behavior is guided exclusively via hereditary factors until the necessary stimuli are present in the environment. An individual's neural development must be at a certain level of maturity for the behavior to unfold. Freud and Erikson are classified as Maturationist.
Worked with bonding and attachment and stated they have survival value, called adaptive significance. To lead a normal life, a child must bond with an adult before the age of three. If the bond is severed, it is known as object loss, and is the breeding ground for abnormal behavior. The three stages of object loss: protest, despair, detachment.
Used a one way mirror for observing children. A maturationist, he felt development is primarily determined through genetics/heredity. Thus, a child must be ready before a certain level of education (kindergarten).
Occurs between the ages of 35 and 45 for men, and about five years earlier for women. This can occur during the Generativity vs. Stagnation stage in Erikson's theory.
Wrote two books, Season's of a Man's Life, and Season's of a Woman's Life, suggesting a midlife crisis was a good thing as it helped people to determine priorities. He stated a midlife crisis occurs for men ages 40-45, and women ages 35-40.
Stated that attachment was an innate tendency and is not learned. To demonstrate this, he put monkeys in isolation, and compared them to monkeys not in isolation, and found the monkeys in isolation were disturbed. He also placed monkeys with terry cloth mothers and others with wire cloth mothers. Baby Monkeys spent on average 16 hours a day with the terry cloth mother, and 1 and ½ hours with the wire mothers, suggesting contact comfort is important to bonding and attachment.
Maccoby and Jacklin
Found through research that males are better than females when performing mathematical calculations. This often does not occur until high school, and may be the result of sex role differences.
The deeper meaning of the manifest content, this is the deep level, within the unconscious.
Who commits suicide more, males or females?
Males commit suicide more, however women attempt suicide more. Theory suggests males use more violent means and thus are more successful.
Found that child-rearing practices have impacts on self esteem. Children with high self esteem were punished just as often as those with low self esteem, however they were told the meaning of the rules, and understood the reasoning for them. Children with low self esteem had less structure and were not told why some things were bad.
Researched the matter of depth perception in children by using a visual cliff. The visual cliff is a devise which uses a glass sheet with simulates a drop-off. Infants will not attempt to cross the drop-off, suggesting depth perception is an inborn trait.
Scientists can only learn from objective facts. Also known as associationism. Comes from the philosophy of John Locke. Empiricism comes from the Greek word meaning experience. Empiricism is the forerunner of Behaviorism.
Changes which can be measured or tested. Empiricists view change as quantitative.
Change that may not be measurable. Instead of looking at the smaller parts of an individual, the entire person is taken into account. Gestalt is an example of a qualitative change model.
Discovered imprinting, the instinctual behavior in which the infant instinctively follows the first moving object it encounters, which is usually the mother. Lorenz had baby goslings view him as the first moving object, resulting in them following him instead of their mother. Thus, during critical periods learning must occur or it will not occur at all. He also stated that humans are naturally aggressive, and compared us to a wolf. To limit this aggression, we need to utilize catharsis to get our anger out, using methods such as competitive sports.
Noticing key features of an object while not noticing the rest of it. Occurs in Piaget's preoperational stage.
R. J. Havinghurst
Proposed developmental tasks for infancy and early childhood (learning to walk or eat solid foods), tasks for middle childhood, ages 6 to 12 (learning to get along with peers or developing a conscience), tasks of adolescence, ages 12 to 18 (preparing for marriage and a career), tasks for earl adulthood, age 19 to 30 (selecting a mate and starting a family), tasks for middle age, 30 to 60 (assisting teenage children to become responsible adults and developing leisure), tasks of later maturity, age 60 to death (dealing with the death of a spouse and retirement).
The Primal Scene
Psychoanalytic concept, where the child sees his parents having sexual intercourse, or the child is seduced by the parent. This can lead to neuroses later in life
Daniel J. Levinston
Conducted research at Yale that found that 80% of men in the study experienced moderate to severe midlife crisis. An age 30 crisis occurs in men when they feel it will soon be to lake to make later changes.
Martin E. P. Seligman
Studied learned helplessness, by electrocuting dogs during specific situations by which the dogs would give up and not fight the shocks.
Called the father of guidance. In the 1900's, Parsons set up centers to help individuals in search for work. Was the first pioneer to focus heavily on sociocultural issues.
Known as third force psychology, and is seen in Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.
Hereditary condition which is an amino acid metabolic difficulty that causes retardation unless the baby is placed on a special diet
Fixed Action Patterns (FAP)
Results whenever a releaser in the environment is present. The sequence of behavior will not very.
Stated the client can make meaning in the face of a crisis and can find new direction. His six stages of life development include: incorporative, impulsive, imperial, interpersonal, institutional and interindividual.
The balance between what one takes in (assimilation) and that which is changed (accommodation).
Counseling a client from a different social and/or cultural background
Cross-cultural counseling, multicultural counseling, and intercultural counseling.
Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development. ACA division that deals with multicultural counseling issues.
The majority culture, it is the dominant culture or culture that is accepted by the majority.
Culture Epoch Theory
All cultures pass through the same stages of development in terms of evolving and maturing.
Father of Transactional Analysis, suggested the group is held together by a bond between the leader and the group members.
Father of Hormic Psychology. Felt genetics played a role in group interaction. Believed in eugenics, by which more desirable people can be bread.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Prohibited discrimination for reasons of gender, race, religion or national origin.
Stated friendship and attraction are highest for apartment dwellers living next door to each other.
Was critical to Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development as she felt it was more applicable to males than females.
John Dollard and Neal Miller
Came up with the frustration-aggression theory, which states when people become blocked and cannot achieve a goal, they become frustrated which leads to aggression.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Devised by Leon Festinger, suggested individuals are motivated to reduce tension and discomfort, thus putting an end to the dissonance.
Beliefs regarding the rightness or wrongness of behavior. If Mores are broken, people are often punished, often via legal action.
Similar to Mores, but often cause embarrassment thus the punishments are lighter and often do not account for legal action.
Suggested multicultural counselors would do well to remember that we all are part of a universal culture.
One or two word sentences often spoken to children one year of age or older, often occurs before the age of four.
Developed a social distance scale which evaluated how an individual felt towards other ethnic groups.
Differs from a culture in that a society is a self-perpetuating independent group which occupies a definitive territory.
Ethnic and racial minorities integrate or adopt cultural beliefs and custom from the majority or dominate culture.
When a client stops resisting the efforts of the therapist and begins to listen to what is being stated.
Father of Logotherapy, existential form of treatment which focuses on healing through meaning.
Insider's perception of the culture. Each person is an individual within a culture, therefore differences may exist from one culture to another.
Sameness between clients. All clients have things in common; therefore one uses the same approaches on one person as another, regardless of culture.
F. H. Allport
Created the concept of social facilitation, where an individual who is given a task to memorize a list of numbers will do better in a group then if he were alone.
McDougall and Ross
Wrote a book, Introduction to Social Psychology, where individual as well as group behavior is the result of inherited tendencies to seek goals.
Pioneer in the behavior therapy creating a paradigm dubbed conditioned reflex therapy, and a behavioristic theory of hypnosis and autohypnosis.
Robbers Cave Experiment
Teaches a cooperative goal can bring two hostile groups together, thus reducing competition and enhancing cooperation.
Created by Eric Berne, there are three ego states, the Child (ID), The Adult (Ego) and the Parent (Superego).
Freudians refer to the ego as the executive administrator of the personality and the reality principle.
Often cited as the first psychoanalytic patient, she suffered from hysteria, and was given hypnosis treatment, which influenced Freud's Psychoanalysis.
Cites psychoanalytic theory, as he was a small child who had difficulty going into streets and was afraid of horses biting him. Freud used psychoanalytic constructs such as the Oedipus complex and castration anxiety to explain it. Is often used to contract Watson's little Albert story.
Daniel Paul Schreber
Spent 9 years in a mental hospital, and wrote a book, Memoirs of a Mental Patient. Freud got a copy and thought he was dealing with issues of homosexuality. He felt afraid he would be turned into women, mate with God, and create a new race.
Sour Grapes Rationalization
When a good event does not occur, and you downplay it by saying you did not want the good event to occur anyway.
When a client becomes aware of a factor in his or her life that was heretofore unknown, counselors refer to it as ___________.
Insight. Insight is equated with the work of Wolfgang Kohler, a gestalt psychologist.
Myers Briggs Type Indicator: personality preference test, with four domains, each with two possibilities. From Jung.
Was the first to discuss the use of group therapy in private practice, was a student of Adler.
B.F. Skinner's Reinforcement Theory
Elaborated on Edward Thorndike's Law of Effect, which asserts responses accompanied by satisfaction will be repeated, while responses which produce discomfort will be stamped out.
Devised by Arnold Lazarus, stands for: B=Behaviors including arts, habits, and reactions. A=Affective responses such as emotions, feelings, and mood. S=Sensations, including hearing, touch, sight, smell and taste. I=Images, including memories and dreams. C=Cognitions including our thoughts, insights, and even our philosophy of life. I=Interpersonal relationships. D=Drugs, including alcohol, legal, illegal, and prescription drug use, diet, and nutritional supplementation.
The most effective time interval between the CS and Us is ____________________.
.5 or ½ of a second.
When a learned stimulus is generalized to another stimulus similar to the one learned. The stimulus is generalized, meaning it will occur for another stimulus without learning for that exact stimulus.
When a stimulus is selected out from a group to be the only one that gives the CR.
When one cannot discriminate between two identical stimulus's, emotional disturbance will occur.
In general, behavior modification strategies are based heavily on ____________________, while behavior therapy emphasizes ___________________.
instrumental conditioning and Skinnerian principles / classical conditioning and Pavlovian principles.
Conducted the first studies which demonstrated that animals could be conditioned to control autonomic processes.
Neurolinguistic programming, created by John Grinder and John Bandler, studied therapists Virginia Satir, Milton H. Erickson, and Fritz Perls to discover what these therapists really did rather than what they said they did.
A counselor who says he or she practices depth psychology technically bases his or her treatment on ______________________.
Freud's topographic hypothesis.
Created a 5 point scale to measure empathy, genuineness, concreteness, and respect. 1 is the poorest rating, while 5 is the best rating. 3 is considered the minimum level.
When something is added following an operant, it is known as a ___________, and when something is taken away it is called a _____________.
Positive reinforcer / negative reinforcer.
Higher Order Conditioning
When a new stimulus is paired with a previously learned stimulus. This new stimulus will take on the characteristics of the old, even if the old one is extinct.
A counselor decides to use biofeedback training to help a client raise the temperature in his right hand to ward off migraines. He would use a ______________________.
Jacobson Relaxation Method
Relaxion technique where different muscles are tensed and released until the body is relaxed.
A stimulus which accompanies a primary reinforce takes on reinforcement properties of it's own is known as ________________.
A counselor utilizes role-playing combined with a hierarchy of situations in which the client is ordinarily nonassertive. Assertiveness trainers refer to this as _________________.
Fixed role therapy
Created by George A. Kelly, a client is given a sketch of a person or a fixed role, and is instructed to read the script at least three times a day and to think, act, and verbalize like the person in the script.
Behavioral sex therapy developed by William H. Masters and Virginia Johnson. It works like systematic desensitization where a couple is told to engage in touching and caressing on a graduated basis until intercourse is possible.
Theory by Wilhelm Reich, where sexual gratification was needed for the cure of emotional maladies. Orgone boxes were used, where one would sit in the box to restore their orgone energy levels. Was arrested for fraud and died in prison.
Imagining an event before you do it. Example: Imaging you are getting on a airplane before you do it.
Therapy that occurs in the imagination. Always occurs in the imagination and is usually done to rehearse a real life therapy.
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: moving the eyes can work to deal with traumatic memories. Devised by Francine Shapiro.
Existentialists speak of three worlds, the __________, or the physical world, the ___________, the relationship, and the __________, or the identity world.
Unwelt / Mitwelt / Eigenwelt
_________ theory was popularized in educational circles after he wrote Schools Without Failure.
In Albert Ellis's ___________________________ the client is taught to change cognitions, also known as self talk and internal verbalizations.
Rational emotive behavior therapy.
The philosopher most closely related to REBT is Epictetus, a stotic philosopher who suggested we feel the way we think. He said, "People are disturbed not by things, but by the views they take of them."
Maxie C. Maultsby Jr.
Is the father of rational behavior therapy. This therapy works well with multicultural populations and groups.
Aaron T. Beck
Founded the Beck Depression Inventory and is the father of Cognitive Therapy. Cognitive therapy is similar to REBT, but they believe dysfunctional ideas are too absolute and broad through not necessarily irrational.
Cognitive therapist most closely associated with the concept of stress inoculation. It is called Self Instructional Therapy. The client is first in the educational phase, where the client learns to monitor the impact of inner dialogue on behavior. Next clients are taught to rehearse self talk. Last, the client uses self talk in real life stressful situations to test themselves.
Within Transactional Analysis, the Parent has two parts, the ______________ and the ______________.
nurturing parent / critical parent.
In TA, the __________ is made up of three stages, the natural child, the adapted child, and the little professor. The little professor explores and learns about the world, and is creative and intuitive. The natural child is spontaneous, impulsive and untrained. The Adapted child learns to comply to avoid punishment by the parent.
_______________ is a cognitive model of therapy which asserts that healthy communication transactions occur where vectors of communication run parallel.
In _____________, there are four main positions: I am Ok, You are Ok; I am Ok, You are Not Ok; I am Not Ok, You are Ok, and I am Not Ok, You are Not Ok. These were made famous by Tom Harris.
I am not Ok, You are Ok
Are those who hate themselves, often will harm or cut themselves, and may kill themselves.
Stated domestic violence has three stages, first, the tension building phase where arguments take place easily. Next is the battering phase which can include physical and or sexual abuse, last is the honeymoon stage, where the abuser states they will never do it again and try to make up. The pattern often repeats, in the end without a honeymoon stage.
in which the client is not allowed to feel good until a certain accomplishment or event arrives.
_________ suggested five layers which must be peeled away to reach emotional stability. The person has a phony layer, a phobic layer, a impasse layer, the implosive layer, and the explosive layer.
Most experts would agree that the peak period of competition between the various schools of counseling and therapy was during the __________.
_____________ is also known as nondirective counseling, client centered therapy, and the person centered approach.
Allen E. Ivey has postulated three types of empathy, _______________________________________.
Basic, subtractive and addictive.
The human relations core for effective counseling includes ______________________________.
Empathy, positive regard and genuineness.
In 1940, what two organizations for group therapy were created?
The American society for group psychotherapy and psychodrama, and the American group psychotherapy association.
The association for specialists in group work. Is a division of the ACA that focuses primarily on group intervention.
Preventive and attempt to ward off problems. They focus on a healthy lifestyle or coping strategies which can reduce the occurrence of a given difficulty.
Group therapy initially flourished in the United States due to a shortage of individual therapists during ___________..
World War II.
Training group, often used in industrial and organizational settings to process personal interactions and improve efficiency. A wealth of work has been done by National Training Laboratories (NTL) in Bethel, Maine, created by Leland Bradford, Kenneth Benne and Ronald Lippitt.
A primary group in the sense that it is mainly preventive. Also known as affective education group, psychological education group, and psychoeducational group.
Most experts would agree that overall structured exercised are _______________ than unstructured techniques.
AA is what type of group?
Self help group, it may be run by an organization or may charge fees, but not both.
Autocratic Leadership Style
The leader has a strict set of rules and runs the group hard. There is a high level of structure.
Democratic Leadership Style
The group works together to make decisions and is considered to be the most healthy group leadership style.
Laissez Faire Leadership Style
The group leader does not have much structure and lets the group go in it's own direction.
Coleaders are apt to work at cross purposes when they do not meet between _____________.
Experts firmly believe that a common weakness in many groups is ______________.
A lack of goal setting.
Research demonstrates that structured exercises with feedback __________ in the group served to improve communication between group members
Group Role: Gatekeeper
Makes sure everyone is on task and participates. This person may wish to lead the group, or to gain control of the group. The gatekeeper often does not work on his problems but focuses on the problems of others.
Group Role: Interrogator
Also known as a peeping tom, this person often asks to many questions to others in the group, and at times can be unapproperate.
Group Role: The Follower
Often goes along with what the group wants, is often not involved and nonassertive.
Situation in which there is a discrepancy between the way a member is expected to behave and the way he or she actually behaves.
Group Stages: First Stage
The initial stage, also called orientation and exploration, preaffiliation, forming.
Group Stages: Third Stage
Forming, also known as the working stage, norming stage, cohesion stage, and negotiation, intimacy, an frame of reference.
Group Stages: Fourth stage
Separation stage, also known as the termination stage, closure stage, adjourning stage.
The ________ group stage has been called forming, orientation, or the preaffiliation stage. This stage is characterized by approach-avoidance behavior.
A client would generally feel the most suspicious of others in the group ____________ stage.
Fights between subgroups and members showing rebellion against the leader generally occur in the __________________________.
Second stage known as the control stage or the transition stage.
A hierarchy or pecking order among members occurs in the stage of __________________.
Storming, also known as the power-control stage.
In terms of research and the group leader's personality, qualities such as flexibility, enthusiasm, and common sense may be helpful to a ________ degree.
Conyne suggested that group intervention is intended to _______________ behavior
prevent, correct, or enhance
A woman with children who was a homemaker but is currently in need of work to support her family.
Came up with the motivation and management expectancy theory stating that an employee's performance is influenced by valence (will the work provide rewards such as money, a promotion, or satisfaction?), expectancy (what does the person feel he or she is capable of doing?) and instrumentality (will the manager actually give the employee the promised reward such as a raise?).
Duel career household
In a duel career household, the woman is typically secure in her career before she has children.
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act
Set forth in 1964 and amended in 1972, stated that women would have equal work opportunities and equal job pay.
80% Four-fifths Rule
Test to see if adverse impact exists while hiring minorities. If the hiring ratio from minorities to whites is not within 80%, an adverse effect exists. To do so, the hiring rate of minorities is divided by the hiring rate for whites. If the quotient is less than 80%, then adverse impact is evident.
Using the 80% Four-fifths Rule, Calculate for a company with 45 white employees and 30 minority employees.
66%, which is less than 80%, meaning an adverse effect is present.
Trait and factor theory
Approach that attempts to match the worker and the work environment (job factors). The approach thus makes the assumption that there is one best or single career for the person. Devised by Parsons and Williamson. The theory assumes that an individual's traits can be measured so accurately that the choice of an occupation is a one-time process. Computer career guidance programs often adhere to the trait and factor model.
Edmund Griffith Williamson
Chief spokesman for the Minnesota Viewpoint, which expanded upon Parson's model to create a theory for counseling which transcended vocational issues.
Purports to be scientific and didactic, utilizing test data from instruments such as the Minnesota Occupational Rating Scales.
_______ suggested a personality approach to career choice based on the premise that a job satisfies an unconscious need. Her work is also known as a "person environment" theory. She utilized a two-dimensional system of occupational classification utilizing fields and levels. The eight fields include: service, business contact, organizations, technology, outdoor, science, general culture and arts/entertainment. The six levels of occupational skill include: professional and managerial 1, professional and managerial 2, semiprofessional/small business, skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled.
Roe spoke of three basic parenting styles: ________________________________ The result is that the child will develop a personality which gravitates towards people or away from people.
overprotective, avoidant, or acceptant.
Roe utilizes _______ hierarchy of needs in that lower order needs take precedence over higher level needs.
In terms of genetics, Roe's theory would assert that genetics help to determine intelligence and education and hence thus influences one's __________.
Roe's theory states _______ is influenced by genetics, parent child interaction, unconscious motivators, current needs, interests (people, things) education and intelligence.
Is broader and refers to similar jobs occupied via different people in different settings (example: psychotherapists).
Emphasized the unconscious processes of the mind in terms of career choice. He thought career choice could be used to solve unconscious conflicts. He felt that difficulties related to job choice are indicative of neurotic symptoms.
Today, the most popular approach to career choice reflects the work of __________. There are four assumptions to his theory. First, in our culture, there are six basic personality types: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, or conventional. Second, most work environments correspond to six personality types. Third, people search out an agreeable environment which lets them express their personality type. Fourth, the individual's behavior is determined by an interaction of the personality and the environment.
In Holland's theory, teachers, counselors, speech therapists and social workers would fit into the _________.
In Holland's Theory, the vice president of the US would be __________. The ___________ person likes to sell to others or perform leadership tasks. He or she would value power and status. Other occupations include: real estate agents, agents, business owners, television producers, and hotel managers.
In Holland's theory, people of this type like to think their way through problems. Occupations include: scientists, design engineers, geologists, mathematicians and philosophers.
Holland's ______ type favors feelings over pure intellect or cognitive ability. The focus usually is on self expression.
Holland's ________type values conformity, structure, rules and feels comfortable in a subordinate role. Statisticians, bank clerks, and controllers fit this stereotype
Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad and Herma
Viewed career choice as a longitudinal process rather than a single decision. Occupational choice takes place during a 6 to 10 year period. There are three stages: fantasy, ages from birth to age 11, based strongly on impulses. Tentative, ages 11 to 17, where interests and abilities are examined. The realistic period ages 17 onward, where a choice is made by weighing abilities and needs and making a compromise. Exploration was said to lead to crystallization. Choice is a lifelong process, meaning a career can change. This theory was the beginning of the developmental theories.
The most popular developmental career theorist is _______. He emphasized the self concept.
_______ theory emphasizes five life stages. The stages are: first, Growth (birth to 14), second: exploration (15-24), third establishment (24-44), fourth maintenance (44-64), and fifth, decline (65+). Super's theory includes the life career rainbow.
Focused heavily on adult career development. She suggested 5 factors: behavior in the adult years is primary determined by social rather than biological factors; behavior can either be a function of one's life stage or one's age at other times; sex differences are actually more powerful than age or stage differences; adults continually experience transitions which require adaptation and self assessment; identity, intimacy and Generatively are recurring themes in adulthood.
The decision making theory
Refers to periods of anticipation and implementation/adjustment, was proposed by David Tiedeman and Robert O'Hara. A decision making process has two parts; first, the client imagines himself in the career, and second, the client engages in the career to test it
All __________ theories contend that the individual has the power to choose from the various career options.
______________ postulated a social learning approach to career choice. This model is based mainly on the work of Albert Bandura.
Status Attainment theory
A child will eventually secure a job commensurate with his or her family status.
A counselor who favors a ___________ mode of career counseling would most likely suggest a site visit to a work setting.
The Gelatt Decision Model
Created by Harry B. Gelatt refers to information as "the fuel of the decision". The Gelatt Model asserts that information can be organized into three systems: predictive, value and decision. The predictive system is concerned with the probable alternatives, actions and possibilities. The person's value system is concerned with one's relative preferences regarding the outcomes, while the decision system provides rules and criteria for evaluating the outcome.
Created the developmental theory of career focuses on circumscription and compromise theory. People restrict choices and when people do compromise in regard to picking a job they will often sacrifice the field of work before they sacrifice sextype or privilege.
The leading method adults use to find career information in the US is by securing information via _________.
When career counselors speak of the OOH they are referring to the occupational outlook handbook. It was published in 1946 to aid war veterans, is still used in 9 out of 10 high schools.
The Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) at its zenith listed approximately 30,000 job titles. The DOT has a nine digit code, where the first 3 digits designed the occupational category and divisions, the middle three described tasks in relation to data, people and things, the final digits helped alphabetize the titles. The DOT was published in 1939 by the department of labor.
State Department of Economic Regulation
State department that often handles counselor licensing. Another division that may handle licensing is the board of healing arts.
Standard Industrial Classification Manual: classifies business in regard to the type of activity they are engaged in (ie, the type of service or product).
The ________________ was published by the US Department of Labor The Guide lists groups of jobs listed in 14 interest areas.
Guide for Occupational Exploration (GOE)
A client who likes her flower arranging job begins doing flower arranging in her spare time on weekends and after work. This phenomenon is best described as _________.
The contrast effect
During job interviews, when a client is seen after other clients who appear worse than the current client, the client will be seen in a most positive light. The inverse is also true.
The recency effect
An employee is evaluated based on current performance, not on overall performance.
Leniency / Strictness bias
Giving a worker a very high or a very low rating, and avoiding average ratings.
Self directed search (SDS)
Is based on the work of Holland and yields scores on his six types, is self administrated, and self scored.
An SDS score
Will reveal the individual's three highest scores based on Holland's personality types.
Kuder Occupational Interest Survey: Now called the Kuder Career Search with Person Match set up so individuals can complete it online in 20-30 minutes. It is written on a 6th grade reading level and is effective at the 7th grade and into adulthood.
General Aptitude Test Battery, it measures 12 job related aptitudes such as intelligence/general learning ability, verbal aptitude, numerical aptitude, spatial aptitude, clerical perception, form perception, motor coordination, manual dexterity and finger dexterity.
Free choice test
Often a short answer format, allows the responder to answer in any manor they wish.
Forced choice test
Usually a multiple choice test, the responder can answer from a specific list of options. Also known as recognition items.
The ___________indicates the percentage of individuals who answered each item correctly.
A __________ each item is independent of all other items. This allows a person to be able to be compared with others who took the same test.
Measures compare traits within the same individual, they do not compare a person to other person who took the instrument.
You have several sections which are spiral in nature. The test is divided into sections, with questions going from easy to hard in each section.
Several measures are used to produce results that could be more accurate than those derived from merely using a single source. A test battery is considered a horizontal test.
States if a test measures what it is intended to measure. It is the most important characteristic of a test. A test that is valid is also reliable, however a test can be reliable but not be valid.
Also called rational or logical validity, does the test examine or sample the behavior under scrutiny? In other words, does the content of the test measure what it intends to measure?
The test's ability to measure a theoretical construct, like intelligence, self esteem, etc.
How well the test compares to other instruments that are intended for the same purpose.
Also known as empirical validity, reflects the test's ability to predict future behavior according to established criteria.
How well does a test appear to measure what it measures? Is the lowest form of validity.
How a test is refined and becomes more valid as contradictory items are dropped. It also refers to a test's ability to improve predictions when compared to existing measures that purport to facilitate selection in business and educational settings.
The helper or researcher looks for tests that have been shown to predict each job element or component. Tests that predict each component can then be combined to improve the selection process.
Relates to both criterion and construct validity, it is the relationship or correlation of a test to an independent measure or trait. You use it to measure criterion and construct validity by correlating test scores with an outside source.
Giving the same test to the same group two times then correlating the scores.
Equivalent or alternate forms reliability
Giving the same population alternate forms of the identical test. Each form will have the same psychometric/statistical properties as the original instrument.
Split half method
A counselor during research decided to split a standardized test in half by using the even items as one test and the odd items as a second test and then correlating them. The counselor was testing reliability via the split half method.
Several raters assess the same performance. It is also called scorer reliability and is utilized when subjective tests such as projectives to ascertain whether the scoring criteria are such that two persons who grade or assess the responses will produce roughly the same score.
Coefficient of determination
The true variance of a test-retest reliability method. For example, if you give the same test two different times, you want to see the level of the same thing measured with each test. To do so, you square the correlation. If the correlation is .70, you take .70, square it and get .49. You then multiply this by 100 and you get 49%. This is your coefficient of determination.
Conducted research and concluded that intelligence was normally distributed like height or weight and that it was primarily genetic. He felt intelligence was a unitary facility.
Stated there are two factors in intelligence, a general ability, called G, and a specific ability called S, which were thought to be applicable to any mental task.
J. P. Guilford
Isolated 120 factors which added up to intelligence. He is also remembered for his thoughts on convergent and divergent thinking.
Also know as internal consistency or homogeneity, is determining if each item on the test is measuring the same thing as every other item. This is found by using the Kuder Richardson estimates, which are often denoted on exams as the KR-20 or KR-21.
Takes place when a research further examines the criterion validity or a test by administering the test to a new sample. This procedure is necessary to ensure that the original validity coefficient is applicable to others who will take the exam.
In most cases a cross-validation coefficient is indeed smaller than the initial validity coefficient. This phenomenon is called________.
Today the ____________ is used from ages 2 until adulthood. The IQ formula has been replaced by the SAS, or the standard age score.
A popular term in family therapy, is when a dysfunctional family are either too open or too closed. A healthy family is said to be in a balanced state and is in negative entropy.
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence: given at 2 years, 6 months to 7 years, three months.
The Black verses White IQ controversy was sparked mainly by a 1969 article written by Arthur Jensen. He stated that IQ was mainly a genetic trait that made up around 80% of IQ. He stated Blacks score 10-15 points lower than whites on IQ based tests.
Created the Black Intelligence Test of Cultural Homogeneity (BITCH) to demonstrate that blacks often excelled when given a test laden with questions familiar to the black community.
Invented an electronic machine to analyses neural efficiency to take the place of pencil and paper tests. It relies on a computer, an EEG, a strobe light, and an electrode helmet. The faster one processes the perception, the more intelligence he or she has. Not a well accepted theory.
The 16 PF reflects the work of Raymond B. Cattell. It is the 16 personality factor questionnaire and is for people 16 and above. It measures key personality factors such as assertiveness, emotional maturity, and shrewdness.
A counselor who had an interest primarily in testing would most likely be a member of
the AMECD, the Association for Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development.
Public Law 93-380
Also known as the Buckley Amendment, a 19 year old college student attending college can view their records which include test data, and view their infant daughter's infant IQ scores, and demand a correction she discovers while reading a file.
Item difficulty index
The item difficulty index is calculated by taking the number of persons tested who answered the question correctly divided by the total number of person's tested.
The researcher uses preexisting groups, hence the IV cannot be altered (gender, ethnicity, etc). As a result, you cannot state that the IV caused the DV.
Refers to whether the DVs were truly influenced by the experimental IVs or whether other factors had an impact.
Refers to whether the experimental research results can be generalized to larger populations.
Statistical procedure that the important or underlying factors in an attempt to summarize a lot of variables.
Nonparametric statistical measure that tests whether a distribution differs significantly from an expected theoretical distribution.
Casual Comparative Design
A true experiment except the groups were not randomly assigned. Can be analyzed with a test of significance (t test or ANOVA).
From a purely statistics standpoint, in order to compare a control group to the experimental group, the researcher will need a ____________.
test of significance
___________research does not make use of the paradigm in which an IV is experimentally introduced
Type I error
Also known as an alpha error, is when a researcher rejects the null hypothesis when it is true. The probability of committing a Type I error equals the level of significance. The level of significance is known as the alpha level.
1 Minus beta
Called the power of a statistical test, as power connotes a statistical test's ability to reject correctly a false null hypothesis.
Type II error
Also known as a beta error, is when a researcher accepts a null hypothesis when it is false.
When you decrease the significance level, alpha errors ________ but beta errors ________.
decrease / increase
A simplistic form of the analysis of variance, is used to ascertain whether two sample means are significantly different.
Stands for Analysis of Variance. It is used when you need to compare more than two groups. The results of an ANOVA yield an F-statistic. The researcher then consults an F table for a critical value. If F obtained exceeds the critical value, then the null hypothesis is rejected.
Analysis of Covariance, tests two groups while controlling for extraneous variables that are often called covariates.
The Wilcoson signed rank test
Used in place of the t test when the data are nonparametric and you wish to test whether two correlated means differ significantly.
Mann-Whitney U Test
Determine whether two uncorrelated means differ significantly when data are nonparametric.
Is used in place of the Pearson r when parametric assumptions cannot be utilized.
An ________ time series design is the simplest type of single subject research and was initially popularized by behavioral modifiers in the 1960's and 70's.
AB or ABA
A _________ distribution has two modes, graphically this looks roughly like a camel's back with two humps.
When a distribution of scores is not distributed normally statisticians call it a ______________.
In a new experiment, a counselor educator wants to ferret out the effects of more than one IV. She will use a ____________.
If a distribution is bimodal, there is a good chance that the researcher is working with ________________.
Two different populations
Has a mean of 50 with every 10 points landing at a standard deviation above or below the mean.
A platykurtic distribution
Looks like a upper half of a hot dog lying on its side over the abscissa.
Divide the distribution into nine equal intervals with stanine 1 as the lowest ninth and 9 as the highest ninth. In this system 5 is the mean.
The nominal scale is strictly a qualitative scale, it is the simplest type of scale. It is used to distinguish between logically separated groups. A nominal scale has no true zero point and does not indicate order. Example: A DSM or ICD category.
Ranks data, however the distance between each rank is not known. Example: first place, second place, third place.
Has numbers scaled at equal distances but has no absolute zero point. Example: IQ score.
Is an interval scale with a true zero point. Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division can all be conducted.
Also known as the observer effect, this is when an exceptive outcome occurs just by the presence of the experiment or the experimenter. By knowing someone is part of an experiment, they make the results come true regardless of the IV.
The Rosenthal effect
When an experiment effects the experimenter into making sure the results occur. This does not have to be deception but an unconscious effect.
A researcher wants to run a true experiment but insists she will not use a random sample. She could accomplish this by using __________ sampling.
Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. Founded in 1981.
In regard to state law and privileged communication, counselors must be aware that laws are
unclear and may vary from state to state.
Privileged Communication is not applicable in cases of:
Child abuse, neglect, or exploitation, suicide or homicide threats, criminal intentions, clients in dire need of hospitalization, or in cases where a counselor is the victim of a malpractice lawsuit. Privileged communication does not apply to minors (their legal guardians hold the privilege) or those who are mentally incompetent.
When counselors state that privileged communication is qualified, they actually mean that ___________.
exceptions may exist.
Exceptions to confidentially include:
Child abuse Sexual abuse Child Neglect Child exploitation Client is a danger to self or others. Client requests a release of information A court orders a release of information The counselor is engaged in a systematic supervision process Clerical assistants who process client information and papers. Legal and clinical consultation situations. Client raises the issue of the counselors competence in a malpractice lawsuit The client is less than 18 years of age (If a client is a minor, a parent or guardian can demand that information be disclosed that was revealed during a session). An elderly person is abused. An insurance or managed care company requests a diagnosis and or relevant clinical information.
A helper who does not possess the education and experience necessary to secure professional credentials.
Virginia was the first state to license counselors in 1976. The APGA (later the AACD and now the ACA) division that was initially the most instrumental in pushing for licensing was the ___________________.
American Counselor Education and Supervision.
According to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) of 1974, also known as the Buckley Amendment, a parent can see his or her daughter's middle school record, and an 18 year old college student can view his or her own educational record.
Around ______ of male therapists have sexual intercourse with their clients, while _____ of female therapists have.
5.5% / .6%
As you are reading the DSM you see this code: 296.2X. In this case, the X refers to________, and this it will be replaced with a diagnostic number.
In the DSM the so-called ________ refer to conditions which are not attributable to a mental condition.
The doctor-patient consultation model
Relies on four distinct stages: entry, diagnosis, implementation and evaluation. In order for the doctor-patient structure to work, the counselor must accurately depict symptomatology, trust the consultant's diagnosis and carry out the consultants' directives. This model is associated most closely with the work of Schein.
The Education Act for All Handicapped Children, states that all children between 5 and 21 are assured free education, handicapped persons are placed in the least restrictive environment (LRE), and an Individualized Education Plan (IEP) is developed for each child. This was passed in 1975.
The major trend that impacted upon the counseling movement in the 1980's included an emphasis on _______________________.
professionalism, certification and licensing.
One of the primary problems in counseling in the early 1960's was that it wrongly emphasized ___________processes
1958 National Defense Education Act
It provided financial aid for graduate education in counseling, expanded school guidance services, and improved guidance for gifted children.
Any system, including a family, is greater than the sum of its parts and therefore it is necessary to examine patterns rather than merely each other's behavior.
Experimental conjoint family therapy
Closely related to the work of Virginia Satir. The primay goal of therapy is to improve intrafamily communication. There are four basic patterns prevented good communication under stress. These defensive postures or stress positions are: placating, blaming, being overly reasonable, and being irrelevant.
According to ______, the individual displaying an irrelevant style will distract the family from the problem via constantly talking about irrelevant topics.
The dean of experimental family therapy. He stated that experience, not education, changes families. Experience goes beyond consciousness. This approach is also known as experiential symbolic family therapy. His interaction with the family could best be described as joining the family and experiencing it as if he were a family member. A co therapist can provide meaningful feedback and allows the therapist to be an active participant in the therapy rather than merely a teacher. He also coined the term, Psychotherapy of the absurd, as he would sometimes create situations with his clients that were not orthodox.
To engage in a pleasant task, one must complete a unpleasant task previous to the pleasant task.
Popularized by Virginia Satir, is an experimental/expressive technique in which a family member places other family members in positions that symbolize their relationships with other members of the family. Finally, the member places him or herself. This helps the therapist understand family dynamics that might be missing from a mere discussion of family issues.
The theory of psychodynamic family counseling is primarily associated with Nathan Ackerman. Ackerman was concerned with the internal feelings and thoughts of each individual as well as the dynamics between then. Prior to Ackerman, it was considered inappropriate to include family members in analytic treatment sessions.
In psychoanalytic family therapy, the word object means
a significant other with whom a child wishes to bond.
In psychoanalytic family therapy, the term interjects really means
that the client internalizes the positive and negative characteristics of objects within themselves.
Devised by Peggy Papp, refers to a consultant or supervisory team that observes a session from behind a one-way mirror and sends messages to the therapist or the family. The counselor may accept or reject the notions put forth via the Greek Chorus.
Believes that important objects (usually parents) often fuel love hate feelings in kids. The more pathological the early life experiences the more that person as an adult will make all relationships fit the internal love hate scenario from childhood.
Feels that kids who had poor role models as children posses protective systems. This simply means that such individuals harbor unrealistic expectations of people in current relationships carried over from childhood.
A double bind
Is a no win situation characterized by contradictory messages such as never smoke again and then smoke as much as you want.
In ________ family counseling the person with the power in the family has the authority to make rules and enforce them.
Insists that symptoms serve a function. A child, for example, sees that her mother is depressed. The daughter throws a glass cup to the floor to break it. This brings her mother out of the depressed state and makes her mother angry and powerful. This is known as incongruous hierarchy. In a normal family hierarchy, the mother controls the daughter; however, in this case, since the daughter is in control, the term incongruous hierarchy is evident. Haley has stated that a malfunctioning hierarchy is evident in most dysfunctional families. This strategic approach asserts that a symptom controls a situation when everything else has failed. A symptom is sometimes viewed as a metaphor for a difficulty being expressed by another family member.
A therapist may warn the family or individual about the negative consequences of change. The counselor might tell the family to take it very slow or expect a relapse. Restraining helps overcome resistance by suggesting that it might be best if the family does not change.
A client remarks that her depression is extremely intense. Her strategic therapist remarks, "it is very possible your depression is hopeless. It is possible you will never get over it.". Her comment is an example of positioning. Positioning occurs when a helper accepts the client's predicament and then exaggerates the condition.
A counselor imposing goals from his or her own culture on people from another culture.
When working with an ________________ family the best approach would probably be Bowen's family therapy, or Jay Haley's strategic family therapy.
Known for his work in intergenerational family therapy. When Bowen refers to triangulation he means when a dyad is under stress, a third person is recruited to help stabilize the difficulty between the original dyad. This could even be a child placed in the middle of a conflict.
One of the primary goals of Bowen's intergenerational family therapy is differentiation. Differentiation is the extent that one can separate one's intellect from one's emotional self.
Bowen popularized a three generational pictorial diagram as a therapy tool. This is known as a genogram.
An intergenerational family therapist says she is concerned with the _____________ system. She is referring to the fact that although the current family in therapy has an emotional system, this emotional system is influenced by previous generations whether they are alive or dead.
nuclear family emotional
The Miracle Question
The Miracle Question: asks the client, "suppose you woke up one day and a miracle had occurred and the problem had been solved. How would you know? What would be different? It gets the client to think beyond the problem.
He discusses the importance of give and take fairness or relational ethics in the family. According to the notion of relational ethics a healthy family can negotiate imbalances and preserve a sense of fairness and accountability. Boszormentyi-Nagy introduced the term family legacy, which refers to expectations handed down from generation to generation. He is known for the family ledger technique. The ledger is a multigenerational balance sheet or accounting system, if you will. The ledger outlines who gave what to whom and who owes what t whom.
Assumes that there are no fixed truths in the world, only people's individual perceptions of what constitutes reality or the truth.
The term skeleton keys as used in Steve de Shazer's brief solution focused therapy indicates a standard or stock interventions that will work for numerous problems.
________________ therapy sometimes uses a treatment team behind a one way mirror, nevertheless it is not required.
Brief solution oriented
One of the codevelopers of the National Head Start Program. He proposed a theory of development that is an ecological systems theory that stresses the microsystem (any immediate or close relationships or organizations the child interacts with), the mesosystem (theway Microsystems work together such as family and school), the exosystem (school, church, neighborhood, parents places of employment, in essence other places the child interacts with but not as often) and the macrosystem (the largest and most remove system which includes culture, wars, the federal government and customs).