Main Causes of the War
the policy of building up strong armed forces to prepare for war
an agreement between 2 or more countries to help each other out in war
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.[Leads to war]
pride in one's nation.
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
Centeral Powers:Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Ottoman Empire
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
The Prince of Austria,heir to the Austrian-Hungarian throne, and was assasinated in July 28, 1914. Triggered the WWI.
Serbian nationalist, who assisinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Hallways dug in the ground.
Why were Trenches unsanitary?
They were full of waste, and decaying bodies.
Trenches, Machine guns, Airplanes, Tanks, and Poisonous gas.
German Invasion of belgium
Britain is now in the war.
Blocked the sea to remove imports. It causes people in Germany to die of starvation.The U.S. goes to Germany's side.
Germany's Unrestricted Submarine Warefare:
Horrifies the U.S.
Germany has the best.
Carried 5,000 crates of ammunition to England from New York. Was a passanger Boat. Sunk in 18min by German U-Boats. Dispite the warnings Germany sent the Lusatana they kept sailing towards England.
Telegram intercepted by , German Arthur Zimmerman sent a telegram to the German minister in Mexico City telling him to promise the Mexican President German help if Mexico went to war with the U.S. the telegram was intercepted and decoded by the British, shocked the American public.
U.S. declares war.
Because of the Zimmerman Telegram. April 2,1917.
Mobilizing for War.
Draft It was the first in U.S. history, Shifted to wartime production, Propaganda to unite public opinion, Silenced all opposition.
John "Black Jack" Pershing
General led the troops in the WWI draft.
Austria sends Serbia ultimatum after the assassination. They refuse, Austria starts war.1914
There were now more jobs due to wartime production. Wages were higher.
Meant to feed families, so they have more food. Cost of food goes down since they have their own garden. This pushes americans to make one, that way america can send more food to Europe.
gave women the right to vote
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
Selective Service Act
1917 law requiring men to register for military service
Daylight savings time
Benjamin Frankilin, it helped us., Turning the clock ahead one hour to increase time to work and save energy
War bonds (Victory Bonds)
They help out the war in order to get money. Through Income Tax.
What was the Committe on Public Information (CPI)?
They made movies to show that the Germans were bad.
The main reason was to create fear, convince people to enlist in the army and cause rage.
"Four Minute Men"
Gave speeches about why Germany was bad, and why Victory Bonds were good.
Music, Posters, Movies. They convinced people that "Huns" (centeral powers) were evil. [America stopped playing Mozart because he was from over there.]
Its purpose was to remove any opposition. Cannot say anything bad about government. Eugine Debbs made a speech about the draft and got thrown in jail.
Sedation acts 1918
Made to Quite Opposition
Schenck v. United States
Court case that limited freedom of speech 2) upheld the Espionage Act 3) under certain circumstances, the SC can limit free speech.
What did Charles Schenck do?
Passed out pamphlets against draft. Argued that sedation acts were against his rights. Was trialed and Supremem court ruled that during war rights were different.
what was the Spirit of 76?
Revolution of the Brits. WWI-Brits.
Irony of WWI?
There wasn't democracy in U.S. yet they were out fighting for it.
League of Nations
An organization of nations formed after World War I to promote cooperation and peace.(U.s didnt join)
Wilsons 14 Points
plan for world peace, divided into 3 parts, 1-5=issues addressed to avoid war, 6-13 dealt with boundery changes, rejected by allies.14th point was League of Nations. (The only one they keep)
Reaction to Wilsons 14 points
They Create the Treaty of Versailles. Which is Very different from Wilsons Plan.
Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles was the product of the Paris Peace Conference, although none of the Allies was happy with it.
Austria- Hungary's punishment [Treaty of Versailles]
Broken up by into Poland, Austria, Hungary, Czech, and Yugoslavia.
Soviet Union's (Russia) punishment [Treaty of Versailles]
Land was taken away.
Japan [Treaty of Versailles]
They had asked for a clause of Racial Equality but didn't get it.
Lasting effects of Treaty of Versailles
Germany is devistated, and out of the Treaty of Versailles, comes Hitler.Soviet Union Continues to build up army. with the goal to spread communism.JapanThey want to prove themselves, spread of their imperialism.
America's Reaction to the Treaty of Versailles?(Run-in with Congress, )
They dont like one point, League of nations. They dont want to be part of European Affairs anymore. The only way they will get into the league of nations is with reservations. which would give congress more power. But Wilson doesnt like it.
Henry Cabot Lodge
conservative senator who wanted to keep the united states out of the league of nations. Fought to allow Reservations.
Wilson Speaking Tour
In 22 days he travled and spoke about how the Treaty of Versailles was good. Has a stroke in Colorado and is paralyzed on left side,is said that the reason was because he believed so strongly in the Treaty of Versailles
Fear of communism taking over the world.
wrote about WWI
F Scott Fitzgerald
wrote the great gastby
Office of Price Administration
WWII Office that installs price controls on essential items to prevent inflation
United states enetered WWII in:
president during the roaraing 20s
who was the president during WWI
Double V campaign
African Americans pledged to fight for "Double Victory" - victory over Hitler in Europe, but also against racism at home.
Committee on Public Information
Goal of the committee was to persuade Americans the war represented a battle for democracy and freedom.
a state of peace agreed to between opponents so they can discuss peace terms
Paris Peace Conference
1919, Big Four attended, everyone but Wilson wanted to blame Germany for WWI.
conservatives keep control of suthern governments -> african americans still have limited rights
a country's withdrawal from internal politics
an economic setback
1917 uprising in Russia led by Vladimir Lenin which established a communist government and withdrew Russia from World War I.
Led by Mitchell A. Palmer suspected communists and other "subversives" (many of whom were immigrants who had committed no crimes) were arrested and jailed w/out due process.
Series of unexplained bombings. that led to palmer raids.
Emergency Quota Act:Quota System
limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted to the United States.
Sacco and Vanzetti
two Italian men that were accused of robbing a bank and murder; Anarchists; heighted American fear of foreigners; executed with hardly any proof because of their nationality and political beliefs
Hated not only blacks but also jews, catholics, immigrants, and groups believed to represent "Un-American" values.
Harlem political leader, founder of the United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
believed that African Americans should strive for equality and integration immediately
(1906) North American Association of Colored People; founded by W.E.B. Dubois & Jane Addams to promote racial equality
became president when Harding died of pneumonia. He was known for practicing a rigid economy in money and words, and acquired the name "Silent Cal" for being so soft-spoken. He was a true republican and industrialist. Believed in the government supporting big business.
a system for paying for goods by installments
he made assembly line production -a finished car would come out every 10 seconds. He helped to make car inexpensive so more Americans could buy them.
United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean
campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages
Place where alcoholic beverages are sold and consumed illegally, especially during prohibition in the US
people who smuggled beer into the US in their boots illegally.
United States gangster who terrorized Chicago during Prohibition until arrested for tax evasion
Faulty Law Enforcement (1920s)
they were part of the illegal alcohol smuggling.
repeal of prohibition.
Young women of the 1920s that behaved and dressed in a radical fashion
artists and writers who were filled with resentment and saw little hope for the future
people were consuming like crazy.
Hawley Smoot Tariff
Hoover trying to help by raising tariffs so more would buy American goods. This backfired and it hurt our exports because foreign countries would no longer buy.
Trickle down Economics
money that big businesses had would trickle down to smaller businesses
Buying on Margin
borrowing money to buy stocks
risky buying and selling of stocks in the hope of making a quick profit
Stock Market Crash
Stock Market Crash occured on Tuesday October.29.1929. A "panic" (rush to sell) leads to a decline in stock prices. The result is billions of dollars lost.
President during the Great Depression. Not well liked. Ignored the depression of the country and the lack of jobs and homes.
After the stock market crash, many Americans proceeded to remove their money from the bank causing many banks to close.
little towns consisting of shacks called "Hoovervilles"
Grapes of Wrath
John Steinbeck's novel about Dust Bowl
Sent out by the government to record the Great Depression by taking pictures, she took the picture "Migrant Mother".
came from Oklahoma to California.Dust Bowl refugees.
A government program specifying economic activities, such as what goods are to be produced and what prices will be charged.
WWI veterans who marched on Washington demanding their $1,000 bonus pay before the 1945 due date.
legislation for bonus money for veterans
United States general who served as chief of staff and commanded Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II, he was fired after he criticized Truman for not using nuclear weapons against North Korean
between Hoover and FDR, FDR won by millions of votes b/c of his fresh new approach, the New deal
informal talks given by FDR over the radio; sat by White House fireplace; gained the confidence of the people
wife to FDR. most active first lady in history. powerfully influenced the politics of the national gov't battling for the impoverished and oppressed.
President WW2 created "the New Deal" to get out of Great Depression
National Socialist German Workers Party,German political party joined by Adolf Hitler, emphasizing nationalism, racism, and war.
Book writen by Hitler where he outlines his beliefs: Germans are a superior race, The Treaty of Versailles treated Germany unfairly and that a crowed Germany needed the lands of Eastern Europe and Russia
special police force in Nazi Germany founded as a personal bodyguard for Adolf Hitler in 1925.highly feared, elite corps of Nazi soldiers and police
Paul Von Hindenburg
President of the Weimar Republic of Germany who appointed Hitler Chancellor in 1933
German Nazi dictator during World War II
the Nazi dictatorship under Hitler
Racial Purification, Unity, National Expansion.
fight a quick and surprising war
Battle of Stalingrad
Germans attacked their and the Soviets launched back; Germans surrendered because of the harsh winter cold
Battle of the Bulge
World War II battle in which German forces launched a final counterattack in the west
16th amendment. Fundraising to pay for war. Most federal funding comes from this source.
War Production Board
government agency that decided which companies would make war materials and how to distribute raw materials
a member of the Women's Army Corp that was organized during World War II but is no longer a separate branch
Rosie the Riveter
Advertising campaign character who encouraged women to take factory jobs.
the separation or isolation of a race, class, or group
Executive Order 8802
Fair Employment Act 1941
called for march on washington demanding end to federal discrimination
Congress of Racial of Equality, a group that planned the Freedom Rides to desegregate interstate buses First civil rights organization to use non-violent tactics to promote racial equality and desegregation
Civil rights leader who founded the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
Mexicans hired to work because of labor shortages
The Zoot Suit Riots were a series of riots that erupted in Los Angeles, California during World War II, between sailors and soldiers stationed in the city
The camps that had Japenese Americans in them.In fear that they were spies.
Executive Order 9066
put japanese american's in internment camps
Korematsu Vs. United States
1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japaneese Americans was constitutional. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 to each survivor.
Japanese American Citizens League-group of Japanese-Americans who worked to get restitution for the losses they experienced during WWII internment camps
Emergency Banking Relief Act
Closed the banks for 8 days; only banks with enough money to satisfy depositors could reopen.
Glass Steagall Holiday (FDIC)
insured bank deposits
Federal Securities Act (SEC)
required promoters to transmit the investors sworn information
the soundness of their stocks and bonds
1933 AgriculturalAdjustment Act.paid farmers not to grow certain crops.Ruled unconstitutional
Tennessee Valley Authority: architectural, educational, health, and controversial public power projects
Civilian Conservation Corps. It was Relief that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood work, etc.
Regulations on businesses to improve the overall economy.Allows people to unionize.Ruled unconstitutional
Work Progress Administration: Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during WWII
National Youth Administration: established by WPA to reduce competition for jobs by supporting education and training of youth
National Labor Relations Act protected worker's rights.
Judicial Reorganization Bill
was a legislative initiative to add more justices to the Supreme Court proposed by U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt shortly after his victory in the 1936 presidential election
Where FDR tried to add more members to the Supreme Court to pass his programs.
called themselves communist, never reached true communism, no longer exists
most evil man in history; killed 20-30 million; "a single death is a tragedy, a million deaths is a statistic"
Government supported attacks against Jews in Russia
thought they didn't get enough out of the Treaty of Versailles and economic crisis
Italian fascist dictator
March on Rome
1922; Mussolini's followers marched to Rome; helped orchestrate Mussolini's rise to power
Fascist leader of the Spanish revolution, helped by Hitler and Mussolini
Political party that tried to establish a Chinese republic
Japan's prime minister. ordered attack on pearl harbor
Rape of Naking
Japanese soldiers raped and murdered women and children. Brutal.
Speech that marks turning point in US policy from isolationism to interventionism. Isolate aggresors.
economic stresses, unemployment, poverty
a general and progressive increase in prices
American plan to restructure German debt
German Nazi dictator during World War II