Psychology Test 2 Chapter 3,4,5

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Nicotine is a ________.
A) psychogenic drug
B) stimulant
C) narcotic
D) depressant

B) stimulant

What is the largest single preventable cause of premature death in the United States?
A) crack cocaine abuse
B) cigarette smoking
C) caffeine intoxication
D) opiate exhilaration

B) cigarette smoking

REM madness refers to the belief that ________.
A) REM sleep causes paranoia
B) listening to more than 8 hours of R.E.M will cause madness
C) without REM sleep one will go mad
D) Too much REM sleep will cause one to go mad

C) without REM sleep one will go mad

Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) Nightmares, but not night terrors, suggest some psychological problems.
B) Both nightmares and night terrors suggest psychological problems.
C) Night terrors, but not nightmares, suggest some psychological problems.
D) Night terrors are a rare disorder.

D) Night terrors are a rare disorder

Which of the following neurotransmitters are associated with alcohol?
A) endorphins
B) acetylcholine
C) adrenalin
D) GABA

D) GABA

Heroin addiction has been treated with ________.
A) methadone
B) amphetamines
C) LSD
D) morphine

A) methadone

Narcolepsy occurs when ________.
A) NREM sleep intrudes into wakefulness
B) inadequate sleep occurs over a period of weeks
C) REM sleep intrudes into wakefulness
D) inadequate levels of stage 4 sleep cause neurological damage

C) REM sleep intrudes into wakefulness

You see an advertisement for a method of learning a foreign language that seems simple-just put on a tape and fall asleep. The accompanying description cites proof that people can learn while asleep. Being a good psychological detective, what question would you ask about the offered proof?
A) Did the researchers use only long sleepers who would spend more time with the tapes?
B) What did the EEG indicate about the participants' level of sleep?
C) Did the individuals actually dream about the foreign language?
D) Were study breaks included in the tape to provide greater comprehension of the material?

B) What did the EEG indicate about the participants' level of sleep?

Short, rhythmic bursts of brainwave activity that appear during stage 2 sleep are called ________.
A) delta waves
B) sleep spindles
C) beta waves
D) paradoxical sleep waves

B) sleep spindles

Circadian rhythms are controlled by the ________.
A) pineal gland
B) thalamus
C) suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
D) hippocampus

C) suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)

One of the main semantic problems with using sleepwalking as a defense for murder is ________.
A) most murderers do not sleep well
B) sleepwalkers really don't walk
C) true sleepwalking does not really exist
D) the correct term for this type of behavior is REM behavior disorder

D) the correct term for this type of behavior is REM behavior disorder

What do we call a state of consciousness that can result from the use of alcohol, drugs, or hypnosis?
A) stream of consciousness
B) daydreaming
C) altered state of consciousness
D) meditative absorption

C) altered state of consciousness

Interpretation of the ________ content of a dream is expected to reveal the ________ content.
A) manifest; latent
B) metaphorical; denotative
C) manifest; sublimated
D) latent; manifest

A) manifest; latent

Drugs that speed up the functioning of the nervous system are called ________.
A) psychogenics
B) stimulants
C) depressants
D) narcotics

B) stimulants

Our awareness of various mental processes, such as making decisions, daydreaming,
reflecting, and concentrating, is called ________.
A) creativity
B) self-awareness
C) consciousness
D) intelligence

C) consciousness

To treat your sleep problem you are told that you should not nap, you should set your alarm clock to wake up at the same time each day, and you should get out of bed if you cannot sleep. What sleep disorder have you been experiencing?
A) narcolepsy
B) enuresis
C) insomnia
D) REM sleep behavior disorder

C) insomnia

Which of the following statements is true concerning cocaine use in the United States?
A) One of the powerful addictive ingredients in cocaine is heroin.
B) Cocaine was used by early Greek philosophers.
C) At one time, cocaine was an ingredient in Coca-Cola.
D) During the Civil War, many Confederate soldiers bought cocaine from Union soldiers.

C) At one time, cocaine was an ingredient in Coca-Cola

All of the following result from sleep deprivation EXCEPT ________.
A) cognitive impairment
B) droopy eyelids
C) irritability
D) hyperalertness

D) hyperalertness

Who among the following people might be a likely candidate for hypnosis?
A) Carrie, a 29-year-old woman who is a copy editor for a newspaper and unwilling to allow anyone to hypnotize her
B) Dan, a 40-year-old man who fantasizes frequently and owns a waterbed store
C) Anthony, a hyperactive 9-year-old boy
D) Glenn, a 32-year-old man who opposes all suggestions directed at him

B) Dan, a 40-year-old man who fantasizes frequently and owns a water bedstore

According to this theory, sleep is necessary for growth and repair of the body.
A) psychoanalytic theory
B) restorative theory
C) adaptive theory
D) dream theory

B) restorative theory

This early researcher did a study that seemed to suggest that people deprived of REM sleep would become paranoid, seemingly mentally ill, from lack of this one stage of sleep.
A) Dement
B) James
C) Freud
D) Jung

A) Dement

Which of the following statements is correct concerning what hypnosis can do?
A) Hypnosis can improve intelligence.
B) Hypnosis can give a person superhuman strength.
C) Hypnosis can improve memory.
D) Hypnosis can create amnesia.

D) Hypnosis can create amnesia

Mary is having insomnia. Which piece of advice would you give to help her deal with it?
A) Don't do anything but sleep in your bed.
B) Study in bed and then go immediately to sleep.
C) Go to bed every night at the same time.
D) Take sleeping pills.

A) Don't do anything but sleep in your bed.

Which of the following pairs belong together?
A) LSD; tetrahydrocannabinol
B) MDMA; acetylcholine
C) marijuana; psilocybin
D) marijuana; tetrahydrocannabinol

D) marijuana; tetrahydrocannabinol

Interpretation of the ________ content of a dream is expected to reveal the ________ content.
A) manifest; sublimated
B) manifest; latent
C) latent; manifest
D) metaphorical; denotative

B) maifest; latent

If your physician says you need a treatment called CPAP, you are suffering from ________.
A) sleep apnea
B) insomnia
C) narcolepsy
D) sleep terrors

A) sleep apnea

Your friend has experienced excessive daytime sleepiness. He is laughing with you and suddenly falls to the ground. Your friend is probably suffering from ________.
A) sleep apnea
B) narcolepsy
C) parasomnia
D) REM rebound

B) narcolepsy

A biological cycle, or rhythm, that is approximately 24 hours long is called a(n) ________ cycle.
A) diurnal
B) ultradian
C) infradian
D) circadian

D) ultradian

Heroin addiction has been treated with ________.
A) LSD
B) morphine
C) amphetamines
D) methadone

D) methadone

Sleep research supports three of the following helpful hints. Which statement is NOT accurate?
A) In cases of insomnia, don't associate your bedroom with wakefulness.
B) Sleeping pills help cure insomnia.
C) It is better to go to bed at about the same time every night.
D) Don't try too hard to get to sleep.

B) Sleeping pills help cure insomnia.

Russell needs more of the drug he has been using to get the normal high he got when he first started. Russell is experiencing ________.
A) overdrawal
B) withdrawal
C) drug detoxification
D) drug tolerance

D) drug tolerance

Sleep spindles appear during ________ sleep.
A) stage 4
B) stage 1
C) stage 2
D) REM

C) stage 2

Caffeine is a ________.
A) narcotic
B) psychogenic drug
C) stimulant
D) depressant

C) stimulant

The stage of sleep in which delta waves begin to appear is ________ sleep.
A) stage 1
B) stage 2
C) stage 4
D) stage 3

D) stage 3

________ is a disorder in which breathing briefly stops during sleep, causing the person to choke,
gasp, and momentarily awaken.
A) Non-REM sleep
B) Narcolepsy
C) Insomnia
D) Sleep apnea

D) Sleep apnea

According to Sigmund Freud, the important underlying meaning of our dreams is found in the ________.
A) subliminal content
B) deep content
C) latent content
D) manifest content

C) latent content

Sleep research supports three "helpful hints" to avoid insomnia. Which of the following statements is NOT a helpful hint?
A) Try to nap as much as possible.
B) Don't try too hard to get to sleep.
C) It is better to go to bed at about the same time every night.
D) In cases of insomnia, don't associate your bedroom with wakefulness.

A) Try to nap as much as possible

What is the largest single preventable cause of premature death in the United States?
A) crack cocaine abuse
B) caffeine intoxication
C) opiate exhilaration
D) cigarette smoking

D) cigarette smoking

This early researcher did a study that seemed to suggest that people deprived of REM sleep would become paranoid, seemingly mentally ill, from lack of this one stage of sleep.
A) James
B) Freud
C) Dement
D) Jung

C) Dement

The best adjectives associated with the activation-synthesis hypothesis are ________.
A) meaningful, problem oriented, and historical
B) unconscious, symbolic, and meaningful
C) bizarre, meaningless, and random
D) intelligent, free, and neurotic

C) bizarre, meaningless, and random

People in stage 4 sleep ________.
A) dream all the time
B) hallucinate
C) are hard to wake up
D) are easy to wake up

C) are hard to wake up

The key to hypnotic induction seems to be related to ________.
A) time of day
B) education
C) state of suggestibility
D) the gender of the person doing the hypnotizing

C) state of suggestibility

Judith is startled when her 6-year-old daughter, Laura, sleepwalks into the family room. It is most likely that Laura is experiencing the ________ stage of the sleep cycle.
A) REM
B) third
C) first
D) fourth

D) first

You meet a psychologist who says she views hypnosis from the social-cognitive perspective. Which of the following is the best description of what her view of hypnosis would be?A) People play the role of a hypnotized person; hypnosis is not an altered state of consciousness.
B) There is no hypnotized person role; hypnosis is not an altered state of consciousness.
C) People play the role of a hypnotized person; hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness.
D) There is no hypnotized person role; hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness.

A) People play the role of a hypnotized person; hypnosis is not an altered state of consciousness

If the EEG record reveals evidence of sleep spindles, you are likely to conclude that the sleeping person is in which stage of sleep?
A) stage 1
B) REM
C) stage 4
D) stage 2

D) stage 2

Russell needs more of the drug he has been using to get the normal high he got when he first started. Russell is experiencing ________.
A) withdrawal
B) drug tolerance
C) drug detoxification
D) overdrawal

B) drug tolerance

According to research on sleep deprivation, a moderate amount of sleep loss ________.
A) is still a serious problem
B) is not a problem at all
C) does not affect people older than age 50
D) only is a problem for women, not men

A) is still a serious problem

Chemicals that can alter consciousness, perception, mood, and behavior are called ________.
A) illegal drugs
B) legal drugs
C) psychoactive drugs
D) hallucinogens

C) psychoactive drugs

The activation-information-mode model suggests ________.
A) dreams have more latent content than once thought
B) the activation-synthesis hypothesis is all wrong
C) nothing influences dreams
D) events that occur during waking hours may influence dreams

D) events that occur during waking hours may influence dreams

A circadian cycle is about ________ hours long.
A) 24
B) 1.5
C) 6
D) 12

D) 12

After taking a drug for several years, Bruce decides to quit taking the drug. He begins to experience a variety of physical symptoms, psychological symptoms such as irritability, and a strong craving for the substance. What term is used to describe what Bruce is experiencing?
A) drug intoxication
B) tolerance
C) physical dependence
D) withdrawal

D) withdrawal

Which of the following people will be helped by hypnosis?
A) Celia, who wants a better memory.
B) Carlos, who wants to stop thinking about his foot pain.
C) Kiesha, who wants to remember what happened to her when she was 4 years old.
D) Jeff, who would like to run faster.

B) Carlos, who wants to stop thinking about his foot pain

Each of the following is a sleep disorder EXCEPT ________.
A) night terrors
B) REM rebound
C) insomnia
D) narcolepsy

B) REM rebound

Upon just waking up, you report a vivid visual event. What term do psychologists use for such phenomena?
A) hypnopompic image
B) hypnotic illusion
C) hypnagogic hallucination
D) positive hallucination

A) hypnopompic image

Freud's psychoanalytic theory of dreaming states that ________.
A) there is no purpose to dreaming; dreams occur because of random brain stem signals
B) dreaming is a by-product of a process of eliminating or strengthening neural connections
C) the purpose of dreaming is to resolve current concerns and problems
D) the purpose of dreaming is to express unconscious wishes, thoughts, and conflicts

D) the purpose of dreaming is to express unconscious wishes, thoughts, and conflicts

Which of the following individuals is most likely to sleepwalk?
A) a 24-year-old adult
B) a 44-year-old adult
C) a 10-year-old child
D) a 74-year-old adult

C) a 10-year-old child

According to this theory, sleep is a product of evolution.
A) dream theory
B) adaptive theory
C) psychoanalytic theory
D) restorative theory

B) adaptive theory

REM sleep refers to ________.
A) dreamless sleep
B) sleep periods in which sleepwalking is likely
C) sleep periods in which a person's eyes move rapidly
D) sleep induced by sleeping pills

C) sleep periods in which a person's eyes move rapidly

Which of the following is CORRECT concerning REM deprivation?
A) REM deprivation can lead to visual impairments.
B) REM deprivation results in long-term mental illness.
C) REM deprivation leads to increased amounts of REM sleep on subsequent nights of sleep.
D) REM deprivation only occurs among the elderly.

C) REM deprivation leads to increased amounts of REM sleep on subsequent nights of sleep

The activation-synthesis hypothesis resulted from using ________.
A) EEGs on college students while they were sleeping
B) PET scans
C) drugs while sleeping
D) a combination of laser technology and X-ray

B) PET scans

Morphine, heroin, and methadone ________.
A) are often used to treat ADHD
B) are derived from opium
C) increase the action of the central nervous system
D) are stimulants

B) are derived from opium

Which of the following is classified as a depressant?
A) heroin
B) alcohol
C) cocaine
D) marijuana

B) alcohol

Tommy desperately wants to quit smoking. Which method has been shown to be the most effective one Tommy can use?
A) alcohol replacement method
B) cold turkey method
C) nicotine gum method
D) delayed smoking method

D) delayed smoking method

LSD is similar to which of the following drugs?
A) PCP
B) MDMA
C) CHT
D) methadone

A) PCP

Sleep apnea is a disorder characterized by ________.
A) nodding off without warning in the middle of the day
B) difficulty breathing while asleep
C) experiencing temporary paralysis immediately after waking up from sleep
D) difficulty falling or remaining asleep

B) difficulty breathing while asleep

REM behavior disorder most commonly occurs ________.
A) in men over 60
B) in children
C) among the poor
D) in women under 60

A) in men over 60

Mental activities that differ noticeably from normal waking consciousness are known as
________.
A) relaxed wakefulness
B) altered states of consciousness
C) unconscious states
D) hyperconsciousness

B) altered states of consciouusness

Approximately ________ percent of children experience at least one episode of sleepwalking before adolescence.
A) 80
B) 40
C) 60
D) 20

D) 20

Which of the following pairs belong together?
A) MDMA; acetylcholine
B) marijuana; tetrahydrocannabinol
C) LSD; tetrahydrocannabinol
D) marijuana; psilocybin

B) marijuana; tetrahdrocannabinol

All of the following are signs of physical dependence related to cocaine EXCEPT ________.
A) obsessing about where to buy it
B) loss of control
C) disregard for consequences of use
D) compulsivity

A) obsessing about where to buy it

You are listening to a person who keeps telling you to relax, attempting to create a situation in which you are likely to follow suggestions. What treatment are you undergoing?
A) autosuggestion
B) reprogramming
C) hypnosis
D) psychotherapy

C) hypnosis

The key to hypnotic induction seems to be related to ________.
A) state of suggestibility
B) the gender of the person doing the hypnotizing
C) education
D) time of day

A) state of suggestibilty

Which of the following is correct concerning recent theories of dreams?
A) Dreams may cause one to murder.
B) There are thousands of people who do not dream.
C) Activation-information-mode (AIM) model suggests we may use suppressed memories to influence dreams.
D) There is a new theory of dreams completely focused on "Elvis."

C) Activation-information-mode (AIM) model suggest we may use suppressed memories to influence dreams

What term do psychologists use to designate our personal awareness of feelings, sensations, and thoughts?
A) cognition
B) consciousness
C) conscience
D) thinking

B) consciousness

The stage of sleep marked by the production of very slow delta waves is ________ sleep.
A) stage 1
B) stage 2
C) stage 4
D) stage 3

C) stage 4

Sigmund Freud would agree with all of the following EXCEPT ________. A) Freud never really believed that dreams represented the unconscious
B) early memories could be found in dreams
C) the key to analyzing a dream will be found in the manifest content
D) dreams represent the unconscious

A) Freud never really believed that dreams represented the unconscious

What used to be called "the gentle tyrant"?
A) drugs
B) sleep
C) dreams
D) meditation

B) sleep

Which of the following statements might help you determine if an individual has narcolepsy?
A) "I sometimes fall into a deep sleep in the middle of a conversation."
B) "I have difficulty getting to sleep."
C) "When I get up in the morning, I have the feeling that I had really bad nightmares."
D) "I don't have an adverse reaction to sleeping pills."

A) "I sometimes fall into a deep sleep in the middle of a conversation."

Surgery to which organ in the body may relieve symptoms of apnea?
A) auditory canal
B) olfactory membrane
C) uvula
D) septum

C) uvula

Which of these individuals has the highest risk for having sleep apnea?
A) John, 62 years old, who is overweight
B) Alicia, 42 years old, who is suffering from anorexia
C) Angela, 21 years old, who is depressed
D) Juan, 8 years old, who is experiencing episodes of enuresis

A) John, 62 years old, who is overweight

Melatonin is a ________.
A) depressant
B) hormone
C) sleeping pill
D) stimulant

B) hormone

How does the activation-synthesis hypothesis explain dreaming
A) the cortex making sense of signals from the brain stem
B) biological attempts to make recent memories more permanent
C) the surfacing of repressed sexual urges
D) the use of elaborate symbolism to disguise "unthinkable" topics

A) the cortex making sense of signals from the brain stem

CPAP stands for ________.
A) correctable pointed airflow problem
B) cancer prevention application procedure
C) continuous positive airway pressure
D) controlled pulmonary air pump

C) continuous positive airway pressure

Jim is 56 years old and slightly overweight. His wife reports that he snores loudly. What sleep disorder seems to fit Jim's symptoms?
A) sleep terror
B) REM sleep behavior
C) sleep apnea
D) narcolepsy

C) sleep apnea

Freud believed that dreams ________.
A) stem from unconscious conflicts, memories, and desires
B) are ways to solve problems
C) are reflections of consciousness
D) are sexual perversions

A) stem from unconscious conflicts, memories, and desires

Benzedrine, methedrine, and dexedrine are all ________.
A) depressants
B) amphetamines
C) illegal
D) narcotics

B) smphetamines

The state we are in when we are awake and reasonably alert is called ________.
A) intelligence
B) waking consciousness
C) self-awareness
D) altered state of consciousness

B) waking consciousness

Social-cognitive theory of hypnosis suggests that ________.
A) hypnotized individuals dissociate the conscious mind into an "immediate" part and a "hidden observer" part
B) people merely are playing a role
C) hypnosis increases dopamine levels in the body
D) hypnosis results in an altered state of consciousness that alters brain waves in regions of the brain

B) people merely are playing a role

When amphetamines are abused, the resulting effects may include ________.
A) nervousness, loss of appetite, high blood pressure, and vomiting
B) increased appetite, sleepiness, and euphoria
C) restlessness, insomnia, muscle tension, heartbeat irregularities, and high blood pressure
D) heart disease, high blood pressure, impaired circulation, and erectile problems in men

A) nervousness, loss of appetite, high blood pressure, and vomiting

A student nurse looks at a patient's chart and does not understand the meaning of serious sleep apnea, so she asks the head nurse for assistance. How might the head nurse describe this condition?
A) The patient appears to awaken throughout the night and start walking, but he will not respond to commands.
B) The patient cannot sleep unless he has several pillows he uses to deaden sounds that might awaken him.
C) The patient is mentally ill and tends to try to suffocate himself at times.
D) The patient has a potentially life-threatening condition in which air does not flow into or out of his nose or mouth for periods of time while he is asleep.

D) The patient has a potentially life-threatening condition in which air does not flow into or out of his nose or mouth for periods of time while he is asleep.

In comparing the dreams of men and women, researchers have found that generally ________.
A) Men's dreams more often involve cars, the outdoors, aggression, and sex
B) women dream more often about strangers than men do
C) there is no difference between them
D) men dream more about home and family than women do

A) Men's dreams more often involve cars, the outdoors, aggression, and sex

If you have been waking up too early for several weeks, you are probably suffering from ________.
A) reverse insomnia
B) parasomnia
C) hypersomnia
D) insomnia

D) insomnia

The hormone melatonin reaches peak levels in the body during the ________.
A) afternoon
B) early evening
C) night
D) morning

C) night

The idea of a "hidden observer" part of the mind was suggested by ________.
A) Hilgard
B) Freud
C) Watson
D) Kirsch

A) Hilgard

Mescaline comes from ________.
A) a poppy plant
B) a virus
C) weeds
D) cactus buttons

D) cactus buttons

Your friend has experienced excessive daytime sleepiness. He is laughing with you and
suddenly falls to the ground. Your friend is probably suffering from ________.
A) narcolepsy
B) REM rebound
C) sleep apnea
D) parasomnia

A) narcolepsy

Which of the following statements is correct?
A) A famous attorney reported that he tried a murder case while he was sleepwalking.
B) Sleepwalking in prisons is a common occurrence.
C) There have been cases in which sleepwalking was a successful murder defense.
D) Sleepwalking has never been used successfully as a murder defense.

C) There have been cases in which sleepwalking was a successful murder defense

Our sleep-wake cycle follows a(n) ________ rhythm.
A) ultradian
B) infradian
C) diurnal
D) circadian

D) circadian

Which of the following indicators reflects the possibility of physical dependence?
A) getting caught with a drug
B) abusing a drug
C) obsessing about a drug
D) drug tolerance

D) drug tolerance

A sleep disorder that may require the use of a machine to force air gently into the nasal passages is called ________.
A) narcolepsy
B) cataplexy
C) insomnia
D) sleep apnea

D) sleep apnea

Human beings generally have an aversion to bitter and sour foods. Some researchers suggest that this is because foods that are inedible or even poisonous are often bitter or sour. The tendency of human beings to find these potentially harmful foods repulsive is an example of ________.
A) conditioned emotional response
B) vicarious conditioning
C) biological preparedness
D) classical conditioning

C) biological preparedness

The current view of why classical conditioning works the way it does, advanced by Rescorla and others, adds the concept of ________ to conditioning theory.
A) habituation
B) expectancy
C) generalization
D) memory loss

B) expectancy

What would you predict about Little Albert based on the principle of spontaneous recovery?
A) After his fear of loud noises was extinguished, the fear could come back.
B) His fear of rats would disappear if he saw a rat without hearing a loud noise.
C) His fear of loud noises would disappear if he heard a loud noise without a rat present.
D) Even after his fear of a rat was extinguished, the fear could come back.

D) Even after his fear of a rat was extinguished, the fear could come back.

A mother tells a young child that when her father comes home, he will spank her because she was bad. One negative consequence of this punishment is that ________.
A) the child will lie to her father and say she never was bad
B) the child will experience fear and anxiety, which are emotions that do not promote learning.
C) the child will hide from her father and try to avoid him
D) All of these negative consequences may occur as they are known consequences of punishment

D) All of these negative consequences may occur as they are known consequences of punishment

When Pavlov placed meat powder or other food in the mouths of canine subjects, they began to salivate. The salivation was a(n) ________.
A) unconditioned response
B) conditioned response
C) conditioned stimulus
D) unconditioned stimulus

A) unconditioned response

Neurofeedback, the newer version of biofeedback, involves trying to change ________.
A) blood pressure
B) heart rate
C) body temperature
D) brain wave activity

D) brain wave activity

Kelsey just told her family a really funny joke that she made up herself. In order to use a primary reinforcer to encourage her in her joke-telling, Kelsey's dad might ________.
A) offer her a piece of candy
B) applaud her appropriate behavior
C) offer her money
D) offer her praise for a job well done

A) offer her a piece of candy

In order to get her 2nd grade students to memorize the poem written on the chalkboard, Mrs. Thyberg gives the students stickers for each poem they can recite from memory. After earning 5 stickers, a student gets to pick a prize out of the goody box. Mrs. Thyberg is using (a) ________ to modify the children's behaviors.
A) negative reinforcement
B) applied behavior analysis
C) token economy
D) classical conditioning.

C) token economy

Little Albert's acquired fear of a white rat was a classic example of a(n) ________ response.
A) classical counterconditioned
B) conditioned emotional
C) negatively reinforced
D) positively reinforced

B) conditioned emotional

Which is the most important characteristic of a food that is linked to a conditioned taste aversion for birds?
A) smell
B) touch
C) taste
D) vision

D) vision

In their 1961 paper on instinctive drift, the Brelands determined that three assumptions most Skinnerian behaviorists believed in were not actually true. Which is one of the assumptions that was NOT true?
A) Differences between species of animals are insignificant.
B) All responses are equally able to be conditioned to any stimulus.
C) The animal comes to the laboratory a tabula rasa, or "blank slate,"and can be taught anything with the right conditioning.
D) All of these were not true.

D) All of these were not tru

Which of the following statements is true about behavior modification?
A) It is useful only for teaching autistic children.
B) It involves the process of shaping.
C) It is different from behavior modification.
D) It cannot be used with animals.

B) it involves the process of shaping

What was the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) in the case of Little Albert?
A) a small enclosed space
B) a high chair
C) a loud noise
D) a rat

C) a loud noise

The person MOST closely associated with the Law of Effect is ________.
A) Skinner
B) Pavlov
C) Thorndike
D) Watson

C) Thorndike

The partial reinforcement effect refers to the fact that a response that is reinforced after some, but not all, correct responses ________.
A) will be more variable in its resistance to extinction than a response that receives continuous reinforcement (a reinforcer for each and every correct response)
B) will be more resistant to extinction than a response that receives continuous reinforcement (a reinforcer for each and every correct response)
C) will be less resistant to extinction than a response that receives continuous reinforcement (a reinforcer for each and every correct response)
D) will be totally resistant to extinction unlike a response that receives continuous reinforcement (a reinforcer for each and every correct response)

B) will be more resistnat to extinction than a response that receives continuous reinforcement (a reinforcer for each and every correct respone)

A researcher places dogs in a cage with metal bars on the floor. The dogs are randomly given electric shocks and can do nothing to prevent them or stop them. Later, the same dogs are placed in a cage where they can escape the shocks by jumping over a low hurdle. When the shocks are given, the dogs do not even try to escape. They just sit and cower. This is an example of ________.
A) learned helplessness
B) aversive conditioning
C) avoidance learning
D) vicarious learning

A) learned helpessness

In Bandura's study of observational learning, the abbreviation AMIM stands for ________.
A) alertness, motivation, intent, monetary reward
B) achievement, motivation, intellectual capacity, memory
C) achievement, momentum, initiative, memory
D) attention, memory, imitation, motivation

D) attention, memory, imitation, motivation

College students faced with unsolvable problems eventually give up and make only halfhearted attempts to solve new problems, even when the new problems can be solved easily. This behavior is probably due to ________.
A) contingency blocking
B) learned helplessness
C) latent learning
D) response generalization

B) learned helplessness

Cheryl is trying to teach her son to do the laundry by watching her. According to observational learning theory, to be effective what must occur?
A) Her son must be able to complete other tasks while watching her.
B) Cheryl must show her son how to do the laundry while she is making dinner.
C) Her son must always model the behavior immediately.
D) Her son must be motivated to learn how to do the laundry.

D) Her son must be motivated to learn how to do the laundry.

Why does fear caused by punishment make the punishment ineffective in changing behavior?
A) Fear produces resentment that makes the child rebellious and disobedient.
B) Fear interferes with the child's ability to learn from the punishment.
C) Fear leads the child to forget the behavior that was punished.
D) None of these.

B) Fear interferes with the child's ability to learn from the punishment.

When the CS is repeatedly presented in the absence of the UCS (food, in this case), the CR will "die out"in a process called ________.
A) extinction
B) habituation
C) generalization fading
D) CR fading

A) extinction

Which of the following statements about learning is NOT true?
A) Learning involves experiences.
B) Learning involves changes in behavior.
C) Learning is relatively permanent.
D) Learning is another word for "maturation."

D) Learning is another word for "maturation".

A person is connected to an electroencephalograph, a machine that records the brain's electrical activity. The person is reinforced when his or her pattern of brain waves changes in order to treat a disorder such as epilepsy. This technique is best called ________.
A) biofeedback
B) neurofeedback
C) behavior modification
D) operant conditioning

B) neurofeedback

Rescorla's modern conceptualization of classical conditioning is based on the idea that ________.
A) the CS has to provide information about the coming of the UCS
B) reinforcement must occur by providing a pleasant event
C) there is a biological readiness for conditioning to occur between the CS and UCS
D) the CS substitutes for the UCS

A) the CS has to provide information about the coming of the UCS

A Congressional hearing is taking place in Washington, DC. The representatives are discussing whether the portrayals of violence on children's TV shows are perhaps contributing to the violence we see in schools today. What psychological process are the representatives probably considering as the reason that TV influences school violence?
A) observational learning
B) insight learning
C) operant conditioning
D) classical conditioning

A) observational learning

A farmer is being troubled by coyotes eating his sheep. In an attempt to solve the problem, he kills a sheep and laces its body with a nausea-inducing drug. He leaves the sheep out where he knows the coyotes roam. He hopes they will learn not to eat the sheep. The farmer is attempting to apply the principle of ________ to accomplish this.
A) instrumental conditioning
B) observational learning
C) latent learning
D) conditioned taste aversions

D) conditioned taste aversions

A young boy is watching TV. In one show he sees a bully steal a lunch from another child. The bully then enjoys eating the other child's lunch. Because this boy feels that his mother makes him a rather skimpy lunch and he is always hungry at school, he starts stealing other kids' lunches at school. According to Bandura's theory of observational learning, his hunger at lunchtime most influenced which factor?
A) memory
B) imitation
C) attention
D) motivation

D) motivation

A school issues tokens to the children for good behavior. This issue of a token is an example of ________.
A) primary reinforcement
B) classical conditioning
C) instinctive drift
D) behavior modification

D) behavior modification

Unlike mammals, birds seem to develop conditioned aversions to food based on which sense?
A) vision
B) smell
C) taste
D) touch

A) vision

Changes controlled by a genetic blueprint, such as an increase in height or the size of the brain, are examples of ________.
A) learning
B) habituation
C) growth cycles
D) maturation

D) learning

What kind of reinforcement is used if Sally's parents give her $10 every time she accumulates six As on her tests?
A) continuous reinforcement
B) gradual reinforcement
C) partial reinforcement
D) sporadic reinforcement

C) partial reinforcement

Learning that takes place without actual performance (a kind of latent learning) is called ________.
A) the observational delay effect
B) the delayed learning paradigm
C) the learning/performance distinction
D) the innate performance preference

C) the learning/performance distinction

Who was one of the first researchers to explore and outline the laws of voluntary responses?
A) Thorndike
B) Pavlov
C) Watson
D) Skinner

A) Thorndike

The abbreviation CS stands for ________.
A) conditional situation
B) conditioned stimulus
C) correlated stimulus
D) conventional structure

B) conditioned stimulus

What was the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) in the case of Little Albert?
A) a high chair
B) a rat
C) a loud noise
D) a small enclosed space

C) a loud noise

Your parakeet eats some cooked spaghetti. Later, the parakeet gets ill. What would the research on biological preparedness predict?
A) The parakeet will eat spaghetti again.
B) The parakeet will probably not eat shell macaroni because it smells similar to spaghetti.
C) The parakeet will probably not eat linguini noodles because they are long and thin and look similar to spaghetti.
D) The parakeet will probably not eat shell macaroni because it tastes similar to spaghetti.

C) The parakeet will probably not eat shell macaroni because it tastes similar to spaghetti.

Changes controlled by a genetic blueprint, such as an increase in height or the size of the brain, are examples of ________.
A) growth cycles
B) learning
C) habituation
D) maturation

D) maturation

Which learning theorist is responsible for the discovery of conditioned taste aversions?
A) Skinner
B) Seligman
C) Watson
D) Garcia

D) Watson

Learning that takes place without actual performance (a kind of latent learning) is called ________.
A) the innate performance preference
B) the learning/performance distinction
C) the delayed learning paradigm
D) the observational delay effect

B) the learning/performance distinction

The concept of latent learning was developed by ________.
A) Tolman
B) Thorndike
C) Watson
D) Skinner

A) Tolman

A behavioral psychologist tries to train a bird to climb a tree to get a reward of a piece of fruit. At first, the bird learns how to climb the tree with its legs and beak. After a while, it starts flapping its wings and hopping around before it starts to climb. Eventually, the bird flies up to the piece of fruit, even though that prevents it from getting the fruit. According to the Brelands' analysis of biological constraints, the bird is demonstrating ________.
A) the power of negative reinforcement
B) that it was reverting to behavior that was instinctual for it
C) the Law of Effect
D) response generalization

B) that it was reverting to behavior that was instinctual for it

Molly is sometimes loud and disruptive in class, and her teacher thinks she acts this way when she wants attention. The teacher worries that yelling at Molly might serve as a positive reinforcer for her bad behavior because it is giving Molly the attention she wants. One behavior modification that might help with this child is ________.
A) use of classical conditioning by shocking the child so that she stops speaking out
B) use of time-outs to remove the positive reinforcement that even a scolding gives the child
C) use of instinctive drift therapy
D) use of partial reinforcement

B) use of time-outs to remove the positive reinforcement that even a scolding gives the child

Dad is watching a home improvement show about how to install a new sink. He really wants to do it and watches the show intently. He knows that his wife will reward him when he is done. However, when he tests the new sink, water spurts everywhere. Taking the new sink apart, he finds that he has left out the crucial washers in the faucet assembly even though this was emphasized in the TV show. What part of Bandura's theory of the necessary components of observational learning is most likely the reason for this disaster?
A) attention
B) imitation
C) motivation
D) memory

D) memory

Which of the following events most intrigued Pavlov and led to his discoveries?
A) The dogs seemed to enjoy the food.
B) The assistant salivated along with the dogs when the dogs started to eat.
C) The dogs started to salivate when they saw Pavlov's assistant and before they got the food.
D) The dogs stopped salivating after seeing the assistant so many times.

C) The dogs started to salivate when they saw Pavlov's assistant and before they got the food.

________ is an example of a primary reinforcer, whereas ________ is an example of a secondary reinforcer.
A) A cupcake; a certificate of achievement given to a student
B) Water; food
C) A gold star; cupcake
D) A kiss; money

A) A cupcake; a cerificate of achievement given to a student

Rescorla's modern conceptualization of classical conditioning is based on the idea that ________.
A) reinforcement must occur by providing a pleasant event
B) the CS has to provide information about the coming of the UCS
C) there is a biological readiness for conditioning to occur between the CS and UCS
D) the CS substitutes for the UCS

B) the CS has to provide information about the coming of the UCS

An example of a discriminative stimulus might be a ________.
A) the white rat in Watson's Little Albert study of producing phobias
B) stop sign
C) the stimulus that acts as a UCS in classical conditioning
D) none of these

B) stop sign

Karawynn Long attempted to toilet train her cat. The principle of learning that was in operation was ________.
A) classical conditioning
B) shaping
C) observational learning
D) AMIM

B) shaping

Which of the following processes occur in both operant conditioning and classical conditioning?
A) extinction
B) generalization
C) spontaneous recovery
D) all of these

D) all of these

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