# Electrical Stimulation

### 112 terms by jculbreth

#### Study  only

Flashcards Flashcards

Scatter Scatter

Scatter Scatter

## Create a new folder

### Frequency

The number of waves or pulses per second.. usually measured in Hz..turned up to pt. tolerance or until you get desired response(sensory or motor)

### Alternating Current

Continuous and bidirectional flow of charged particles (+ and -)..no net charge

### Interpulse Interval

Time between pulses in a pulsed current

### Cathode

The negatively charged electrode

### Amplitude

The magnitude of the current or voltage, the distance from the zero line to the peak or trough

### Frequency Modulation

Usually referred to a sweep

### Anode

The positively charged electrode

### Pulse Duration

The time from the beginning of the first phase to the end of the last phase of one pulse, the width of the pulse

### Pulsed Current

Electrical current delivered discontinuously with on times and off times

### Impedance

Opposition to the current flow, tissue that resist flow; adipose, bone, tendons, fascia

### Direct Current

Used for inotophoresis, stimulating denervated muscles to contract, wound care

### Interferential Current

what is a waveform produced by the interference of two medium frequency sinusoidal AC's

### Duty Cycle

Ratio of on time to total cycle time; On 10 sec, off 50 sec = 10/60 x 100= 16% or 1:6 duty cycle. The higher the duty cycle the more fatiguing

### Ramp up or rise time

Time it takes current to go from zero to maximum amplitude

### Amplitude Modulation

what is usually referred to as scan

### Ohm's Law

what is the relationship between voltage (V), electrical current (I) and resistance (R)

### Electrical Current

Measured in Amperes (A) and has an abreviation of (I)

### Electrical Current

Flow or movement of charged particles through a conductor following an applied electrical field

### Voltage

what is electrical force driving charged particles through a conductor between two regions or points

### Resistance

what is the property of the conductor that resists the flow of charged particles

### Resistance

what is measured in Ohms and is abreviated (R)

### Impedance

what is a more accurate descriptor of the relationship between voltage and current than resistance

### Ohm's Law

what is (V= I x R)

### Direct Current

what does DC stand for

### Direct Current

what is continuous and unidirectional flow of charged particles (either + or -)

### Alternating Current

what does AC stand for

### Frequency

what is another name for pulse rate

### Pulse Duration/Phase Duration

what is another name for Width

### Comfort of stimulation

small pulse width

### Intrapulse or Interphase interval

what is the time between phases of a single pulse

### Decay Time or ramp down

Time it takes from peak amplitude to decrease to zero during a phase

### Ramp up/Ramp down

what allows the patient to acclimate to the stimulation

### Symmetrical biphasic pulsed

what type of estim is most comfortable for patients and provides the most torque for muscle strengthening

### HVPC

what type of estim is used for tissue healing or acute edem

### Burst Mode

what is a series of pulses delivered in an "envelope" as singe pulse also called a pulse train

### Resting potential

The homeostasis that exists between eithor side of the cell membrane. Inside of the cell is -, outside is +, -70mV

### Depolarize

when the inside of the cell membrane becomes less negative than the outside

### Repolarize

when the inside of the cell membrane returns to more negative state & resting potential is restored

### opening of Na channels pulls Na in to the cell by the negative charge inside and because of the larger concentration of Na outside the cell

what happens during the Depolarization of an action potential

### Channels close and K channels open; K is pushed out of the cell because of the large concentration of K inside of the cell and the positive charge inside the cell

what happens during the Repolarization of an action potential

### Absolute refractory period

when the membrane is depolarized, and it is not possible to create another Action potential

### Nerve diameter and myelination

what does propagation speed depend on

### Strength-Duration Curve

what is the minimum amount of electrical current required to depolarize the nerve and produce and Action potential in a specific type of nerve

### Sensory nerves

Nerve with a large diameter that takes a lower current amplitude and shorter pulse width to depolarize

### Motor nerves

Nerves with a medium diameter that takes a medium current amplitude and medium pulse width to depolarize

### Pain-transmitting C fibers

Nerves with a small diameter that takes a high current amplitude and large pulse width to depolarize

### Accommodation

decreased response to same amplitude of nerve stimulation over time

### Muscle cell membrane

denervated muscles contract via depolarization of what

### Voltage

What is directly related to current flow

### Voltage

What is measured in volts and abreviated (V)

### Voltage

What is indirectly related to current resistance

### Controlling acute and chronic pain

Indication for estim

### Edema reduction

Indication for estim

### Muscle spasm reduction

Indication for estim

### Reduction of joint contractures

Indication for estim

### Minimize atrophy

Indication for estim

### Facilitate tissue healing

Indication for estim

### Strengthen muscle

Indication for estim

### Facilitate fracture healing

Indication for estim

### pacemaker

contraindication for estim

### Cancer

contraindication for estim

### Acute infection

contraindication for estim

### Exposed metal

contraindication for estim

### Carotid sinus

contraindication for estim

### Pregnancy/1st trimester/over abdomen

contraindication for estim

### DVT

contraindication for estim

### Active TB

contraindication for estim

### active bleeding

contraindication for estim

### recent fracture or surgical site

precaution for estim

### decreased sensation

precaution for estim

### impaired cognition

precaution for estim

### pregnancy/during labor

precaution for estim

### heart conditions

precaution for estim

### obesity

precaution for estim

### eczema, psoriasis, acne dermatitis

precaution for estim

### epilepsy or other neruoloical deficit/ in cervical area

precaution for estim

### EMS

Electrical muscle stimulation; stimulation of denervated muscle to maintain viability via HVPC

### ESTR

Electrical stimulation for tissue repair;edema reduction, increase in circulation, wound and fracture healing via HVPC

### NMES

Neuromuscular estim for stimulation of innervated muscles

### TENS

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for pain control

### IF

Interferential; pain control delivered at a deeper level than TENS

### FES

Functional electrical stimulation delivered for a specific functional purpose

### Positive electrode/Red

Causes proteins to coagulate and hardens tissue due to an increase in acidity below the electrode

### Negative electrodes/Black

Causes proteins to liquify and softens tissues due to an increase in alkalinity below the electrode

### All or non principle

single neurons or single motor units respond completely or not at all to an electrical stimulus

### Capacitance

allows current flow to pass through easily; nerves, muscle, blood

### Tetany

a physical state in a muscle when action potentials from nerves arrive at the skeletal muscle motor end plate rapidly enough to cause a steady contraction

### Motor point

area on the surface of the skin that is hypersensitive to flow. A place above where blood vessels and nerve bundles enter the muscle

### CNS contraction

small muscle fibers fire first

### Estim contraction

large muscle fibers fire first

### CNS contraction

Asynchronous firing of motor units

### CNS contraction

Action potential moves away from the cell body

### Estim contraction

Is more fatiguing than a CNS contraction

### Estim contraction

Synchronous firing of motor units

### Estim contraction

Action potential moves in all directions from the site of depolorization

### Estim contraction

Is less comfortable than CNS contraction

### balanced asymmetrical

shape of the positive phase and the negative phase of a single biphasic pulse are different but the amount of current delivered by each is the same, no net effect

### unbalanced asymmetrical

shape of the positive phase and the negative phase of a single biphasic pulse are different and the amount of current delivered by each is not the same, there can be a net effect

### Law of DuBois Reymond

The amplitude, rise time, and pulse width of a stimulus must be adequate to depolarize a membrane and cause a contraction

### Can increase total current

increase in amplitude

### Can increase total current

Increase in frequency

### Can increase total current

increase in pulse width

### The larger the electrode

the smaller the current density per square inch

### edge effect

when two electrodes are touching amplitude along the borders can spike

### decrease conductivity/impedance

warm tissues, long pathway, small electrodes, oil, hair, dry skin, adipose, bone, ligaments, tendons

### increase conductivity/capacitance

cold tissues, short pathway, large electrodes, clean skin, moist skin, motor points

### Large electrodes

density is shallow, less selectivity, stronger contraction, more comfortable, greater current spread

### small electrodes

density is deeper, less current spread, better selectivity, weaker contraction , less comfort

### monopolar

1 channel, one small electrode is at the treatment site, with a larger dispersive pad placed proximally; ionto, woundcare

### bipolar

1 channel, 2 electrodes are placed at the treatment site; NMES

2 channels, 4 electrodes at treatment site that are criss crossed; IF, TENS

### dual bi-polar

2 channels, 4 electrodes; usually put on agonist/antagonist for NMES

Example: