Apex Biology - 8.4

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57 terms · Invertebrates

vertebrate

Animal that has a backbone.

invertebrate

Animal that doesn't have a backbone.

annelid

Worm with cylindrical, segmented bodies.

arthropod

Invertebrate with segmented body and jointed limbs, such as spiders and insects.

cnidarian

Aquatic animal that has a saclike body with stinging tentacles.

echinoderm

Aquatic animal, such as sea urchin or starfish, which have spiny skin.

mollusk

Aquatic animal that has a soft body surrounded by a hard outer shell.

radial symmetry

A body plan in which the organs and tissues are arranged in a circle around a central axis.

bilateral symmetry

A body plan in which two halves of the body are mirror images of one another.

blastula

The early stage of an embryo that is composed of a hollow ball of cells.

protostome

A bilaterally symmetrical invertebrate whose blastophore forms into a mouth.

blastophore

Opening of the blastula.

deuterostome

A bilaterally symmetrical invertebrate whose blastophore forms into an anus.

collar cells

Specialized cells that push water through sponges and pull food from the water.

osculum

An opening in the top of the sponge through which water exits

cnidocyte

Stinging cell that lines cnidarian tentacles.

nematocysts

Poison-filled structures in the tentacles of cnidarians.

medusa

The umbrella-shaped form of the cnidarian that can float freely in the water.

polyp

A cylinder-shaped cnidarian that attaches to objects on the ocean bottom and remains sedentary.

tripoblastic

Organisms that emerge from three cell layers.

coelom

A fluid-filled cavity that forms between the tissues.

acoelomates

Animals that lack a coelom.

hermaphrodite

An animal that has both male and female reproductive organs.

septum

A wall that divides the segments of a worm

trochophore

The larval stage of the mollusk.

radula

A rough, tongue-like organ in mollusks that is used for eating food.

mantle

A layer of tissue surrounding the mollusk's body that produces the shell.

visceral mass

A layer underneath the mantle which contains the mollusk's internal organs

exoskeleton

The hard material on the outside of invertebrates, used for protection and support

chitin

A polysaccharide component of the arthropod exoskeleton

molting

The process of shedding of the outer skin as the animal grows

tracheal tube

Tube that runs through an arthropod body and enables breathing

Malpighian tube

Tube that collects wastes from the arthropod's body for removal.

pupa

The stage at which an insect transforms into its adult form

decapods

Group of crustaceans that have ten (five pairs) feet.

chelipeds

Specialized legs used for catching prey.

carapace

A hard protective coating on the back of an animal.

thorax

The middle part of the body in an arthropod between the head and abdomen.

swimmerets

Appendages used for swimming.

arachnid

Arthropod that breathes air and has four pairs of legs.

chelicerae

Fang-like appendages near the mouth of an arachnid used to inject the prey with a paralyzing venom.

chelicerate

An animal that has chelicerae.

spinnerets

Organs in the spider that contain silk glands.

pedipalps

Appendages near the mouths of ticks, spiders, and other arachnids used to latch onto prey.

myriapod

Any arthropod that has an elongated body composed of many segments, such as the centipede and millipede.

endoskeleton

An internal skeleton

madreporite

A structure in the echinoderm through which water enters the vascular system.

ampulla

Bulb-like sacs in the echinoderm vascular system that are contracted to push the water through the canals into the foot.

schistosomiasis

A disease caused by the parasitic schistosome flatworm.

trichinosis

A disease caused by the parasitic roundworm Trichinella, which lives in meat.

malaria

A disease caused by microscopic parasites and transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito.

Lyme disease

A disease caused by bacteria transmitted by the bite of a deer tick that causes muscle and joint aches.

invasive species

Animals that are relocated from their native ecosystem to other parts of the world.

trilobite

A now extinct class of arthropod.

cephalization

The concentration of sense organs in the front of an animal's body.

ganglia

In some invertebrates, a structure made up of nerve cells; in mammals, a group of nerve cell bodies.

spiracles

Small openings through which air enters and exits the body of arthropods.

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