terms that are critical, yet specific, to a particular discipline or unit of study
terms found among expository texts and form presentations or speeches but which are not unique to any content or academic discipline
a changing, growing understanding of the meaning of words as a learner experiences, hears, and reads a word in a variety of places and circumstances
gaining meaning of a vocabulary word by applying what they know about it already to the word in different contexts
incidental vocabulary development
exposure to word meaning through conversation, word play (puns), reading, and a variety of sources like TV, radio, video
intentional vocab development
exposure to word meanings through explicit discussions that ID synonyms, antonyms, connotations, and nuances of the language while providing the learner with clarifications and re-directions aimed at improving their comprehension and understandings
conceptual base of understanding
an underlying knowledge of subject matter--with which to expand vocabulary knowledge
Flanigan and Greenwords Level 1 of selecting words for study
Critical "Before" words which students must know before reading at an in-depth level; moderate to significant teaching time
Flanigan and Greenwords Level 2 of selecting words for study
"Foot-in-the-Door" words which students must know before reading at a surface level; minimal teaching time
Flanigan and Greenwords Level 3 of selecting words for study
Critical "After" Words which students do not need to know before reading; varying level of knowledge level and time spent depending on purpose
Flanigan and Greenwords Level 4 of selecting words for study
Words not to teach - do not need to be addressed because they are previously known or insignificant
PREPARATION FOR READING - vocab
improves student comprehension regardless of their reading ability; engages students as they attempt to recognize a link between words in content and their own knowledge
PREPARATION FOR READING vocab strategies BUZZ, BUZZ
Word inventories, graphic organizers, possible sentences
ASSISTANCE FOR READING vocab strategies BUZZ, BUZZ
Context Clue Discovery, Structural Analysis, Vocabulary Podcasts, vocabulary lists, Organizational (JOT) charts, using the dictionary
REFLECTION FOR READING vocab strategies BUZZ, BUZZ
semantic feature analysis, postgraphic organizers, categorization, Direct-Reading-Thinking Activity Vocab Search, Vocabulary Study System, Four column organizer for word mastery, vocabulary self-collection strategy, vocab bingo
how do you play/set up vocab bingo
make bingo cards from vocab; read definitions and students cover words, check winner by rereading definitions used
does vocabulary plan a critical role in reading and comprehension? yes/no
is vocab just as important for secondary students? yes/no
Kibby proposes a continuum of word knowledge progressing from ____ to potentially ___ knowledge
word/thing are used in speech/writing
word is comprehended in listening and reading but not used in speaking and writing
organized prior knowledge
word known and organized in schema but not activated by oral/written word and may be communicated only by description
fragmented knowledge of a thing that cannot be recalled without external prompt, but is capable to incorporation into schema
immediately learnable knowledge
word not known but has sufficient prior knowlege to conceptualize word with verbal or graphic descriptions or definitions
potentially learnable knowledge
thing not known and cannot be learned with current prior knowledge; additional learning is required before word may be learned
full-concept learning requires 4 mental operations
1. recognizing/generating critical attributes; examples/nonexamples of a concept
2. seeing relationships between the concept to be learned and what is already known
3. applying the concept to a variety of concepts
4. generating new contexts for the learned concept
knowing what something is/means by using context clues
word knowledge results from
both incidental and intentional learning experiences
incidental learning experiences
developed naturally through daily living
intentional learning experiences
purposely setting up an environment for encouraging language play, inquiry, and discovery as well as explicit instruction
incidental vocabulary development
occurs through conversation, word play (puns, rhymes, jingles), exposure to spoken words from a variety of sources like TV, radio, and video; reading
earliest vocab is learned through
"rich" vocab is found ...
in books, not conversations that adults have with children
teachers need to devote time to conceptual understanding of
vocab terms for young and older readers
children with limited oral vocabularies predict ....
limited reading comprehension later in their schooling experiences
what are some activities that encourage "classroom" talk
project work, role-playing, storytelling, discussion, drama
who needs "classroom" talk
intentional vocabulary development
making time to develop full word knowledge-depth/breadth of concept understanding has been proven beneficial
when students engage in explicit discussions identifying synonyms, antonyms, connotations, and nuances of the language, students were helped to
clarify misunderstandings and were redirected to improve their reading comprehension
through direct instruction
think aloud and providing support for practice and clarification to scaffold strategies/techniques for independent word learning
teachers should go beyond introducing new words before reading, they should ...
1. provide rich and varied language experiences
2. teach individual words
3. teach word learning strategies
4. foster word consciousness
when does vocabulary need to be addressed?
prior, during, and after reading a text, providing repeated and reflective experiences with the words targeted for study
rote vocabulary experiences presented in the abstract so students cannot grasp surface or underlying meaning
teachers should teach vocabulary by...
using word manipulation, personal connections and associations, should include deeper processing, mnemonic devices, key word strategies for retention of content words
conceptual base of understanding
underlying knowledge of subject matter-with which to expand vocabulary knowledge
when should you teach vocabulary?
before, during, after reading
is letting students read freely in class or at home sufficient for large vocabulary growth?
what are the 3 tiers for prioritizing/selecting words for specific instruction?
Tier 1, 2 and 3
Tier 1 are words that are considered ___ for understanding and communicating
Tier 1 words are ___ ___ words
Tier 2 words are targeted for study in ES and include words ....
that label precisely and occur across subject areas
Tier 3 words are more ___ and often used at advanced levels of study
what is the P in teaching vocab.?
students need preparation in vocabulary before reading a chapter or lesson but the work should not stop there
what is the A in teaching vocab?
often students need assistance with vocabulary during or immediately after reading
What is the R in teaching vocab?
for in-depth word learning students need longer periods of reflection to study vocabulary and attempt to understand how terms convey meaning and relationships
PAR supports specialized type of language development needed for students to come to ....
full word understanding of the academic and content specific vocabulary necessary for study and life application
content learning involves ...
gaining a clear understanding of sets of terms used in the content area
When teaching vocabulary in preparation for reading --
it improves student comprehension regardless of student's reading ability
students should explore and attempt to make sense of words....
before they begin to read; they should link what they know to the words as they will be used in the content area
what are some strategies that can be used to teach vocabulary in preparation for reading (buzz, buzz)
word inventories, graphic organizers, semantic maps, modified cloze, vocabulary connections, capsule vocabulary
self inventories of terms; often found at the beginning of chapters
why should you use word inventories?
it encourages learners to assess their own prior knowledge and rate themselves
graphic organizer that is excellent for depicting interrelationships and hierarchies of concepts in a lesson
why should you use semantic maps?
they increase reading comprehension and vocabulary learning. they can be used as a pre and post reading exercise
combines vocabulary and prediction. Students are given 5-8 words they are to use in a sentence. While reading, they look for "real" meaning and write new sentence - it can create a mnemonic
why should you use possible sentences?
can create mnemonic; it acquaints students with new vocabulary that they will encounter in their reading; give purpose for reading as they attempt to find "real" meaning of words
Teaching vocabulary to Assist students in their reading
students need to be aware of their own reading to determine what words they don't understand.
what should students do when they find words they don't understand?
highlight, use sticky notes, to mark unknown or interesting words
what should students use to help determine meaning of unknown words?
context clues, morphology, dictionaries
define context clue discovery (buzz, buzz)
they think of the word in isolation and try to define it; read to find out which one was used
define structural analysis/morphemic analysis
process of taking word apart -- prefix, root, suffix. It provides a way to examine the word to determine meaning
smallest unite of meaning
provide a ready reminder of several factors that help determine a word's meaning
dictionaries should be used as ____ _____ _____ when figuring out the meaning of a word
the last source
Jot Charts/Organizational Charts (buzz, buzz)
used to compare/contrast words
how is Jot Chart used
teacher sets up table/matrix and encourages students to fill it in while reading. To modify for some students, parts of chart may be filled in
why should teachers use Jot Charts?
helps students understand the relationship and build meaning as they read. When they are completed, they are a good study guide. If filled in by groups, social aspects of learning can be included.
word attack paradigms
give students a way to attempt newly found words without resorting to the dictionary
how do students use word attack paradigms
context clues, take off affixes to see if word is known, break word into syllables-known?, sound out or stretch word, look in glossary, ask a friend/teacher, look in dictionary
is using the dictionary helpful?
not particularly helpful in building and encouraging vocab development
Teaching vocabulary as a reflection activity
the reflection phase of vocabulary development holds much promise in helping students thoroughly grasp the meaning of difficult terms in their reading
why should teachers use WORD PUZZLES as a reflective activity to teach vocab?
teachers enters word and definition into a computer program and it constructs the puzzle; good review and allows students to practice/reflect on words
what is TOAST (reflective vocab tool - buzz)
T:test - self test
O:organize - words organized into semantically related groups (structure/function)
A:anchor-word in memory by using a keyword method (picture/caption to term)
S:say-review by calling out the spellings
T:test-immediately after each review, students administer a posttest
vocabulary self-collection strategy-VSS (buzz, buzz)
cooperative vocab activity that allows both teachers and students to share words that they wish to learn and remember
when does VSS begin?
after the reading assignment. each student should contribute one word
what are some reflection strategies?
VSS, TOAST, word puzzles, post graphic organizers, word sorts
language enrichment through reflection
fun ways to learn new words
word analogies, magic squares, vocabulary illustrations, vocabulary bingo, word bubbles, odd word out
Word analogies are ...
excellent for teaching higher order thinking skills
______ is to ______ as _____ is to ________
define word of piece of paper, draw/illustrate word, then write a sentence that goes along with the sentence
allows students to play with words in a relaxed atmosphere
what is the main reason for vocabulary study?
develop concepts and help students see relationships in their reading
vocabulary study is a must for _____ and __________
Preparation strategies help elevate word consciousness, provide ....
personal connections and build background to aid in understanding
Teachers should also assist students with long term aids ...
and strategies to help them understand unfamiliar words.
It may be best to have students reflect on..
difficult words after reading when they have established a conceptual base of knowledge with which to learn
by reconsidering and reflecting on selected vocabulary, students get ...
opportunities for in-depth vocabulary knowledge development for later reference as independent learners