Teaching Vocabulary

97 terms by kjldavis 

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content-specific vocabulary

terms that are critical, yet specific, to a particular discipline or unit of study

academic vocab

terms found among expository texts and form presentations or speeches but which are not unique to any content or academic discipline

word knowledge

a changing, growing understanding of the meaning of words as a learner experiences, hears, and reads a word in a variety of places and circumstances

contextual knowledge

gaining meaning of a vocabulary word by applying what they know about it already to the word in different contexts

incidental vocabulary development

exposure to word meaning through conversation, word play (puns), reading, and a variety of sources like TV, radio, video

intentional vocab development

exposure to word meanings through explicit discussions that ID synonyms, antonyms, connotations, and nuances of the language while providing the learner with clarifications and re-directions aimed at improving their comprehension and understandings

conceptual base of understanding

an underlying knowledge of subject matter--with which to expand vocabulary knowledge

Flanigan and Greenwords Level 1 of selecting words for study

Critical "Before" words which students must know before reading at an in-depth level; moderate to significant teaching time

Flanigan and Greenwords Level 2 of selecting words for study

"Foot-in-the-Door" words which students must know before reading at a surface level; minimal teaching time

Flanigan and Greenwords Level 3 of selecting words for study

Critical "After" Words which students do not need to know before reading; varying level of knowledge level and time spent depending on purpose

Flanigan and Greenwords Level 4 of selecting words for study

Words not to teach - do not need to be addressed because they are previously known or insignificant

PREPARATION FOR READING - vocab

improves student comprehension regardless of their reading ability; engages students as they attempt to recognize a link between words in content and their own knowledge

PREPARATION FOR READING vocab strategies BUZZ, BUZZ

Word inventories, graphic organizers, possible sentences

ASSISTANCE FOR READING vocab strategies BUZZ, BUZZ

Context Clue Discovery, Structural Analysis, Vocabulary Podcasts, vocabulary lists, Organizational (JOT) charts, using the dictionary

REFLECTION FOR READING vocab strategies BUZZ, BUZZ

semantic feature analysis, postgraphic organizers, categorization, Direct-Reading-Thinking Activity Vocab Search, Vocabulary Study System, Four column organizer for word mastery, vocabulary self-collection strategy, vocab bingo

how do you play/set up vocab bingo

make bingo cards from vocab; read definitions and students cover words, check winner by rereading definitions used

does vocabulary plan a critical role in reading and comprehension? yes/no

yes

is vocab just as important for secondary students? yes/no

yes

Kibby proposes a continuum of word knowledge progressing from ____ to potentially ___ knowledge

production; learnable

production knowledge

word/thing are used in speech/writing

recognition

word is comprehended in listening and reading but not used in speaking and writing

organized prior knowledge

word known and organized in schema but not activated by oral/written word and may be communicated only by description

unorganized knowledge

trivia

unorganized knowledge

fragmented knowledge of a thing that cannot be recalled without external prompt, but is capable to incorporation into schema

immediately learnable knowledge

word not known but has sufficient prior knowlege to conceptualize word with verbal or graphic descriptions or definitions

potentially learnable knowledge

thing not known and cannot be learned with current prior knowledge; additional learning is required before word may be learned

full-concept learning requires 4 mental operations

1. recognizing/generating critical attributes; examples/nonexamples of a concept
2. seeing relationships between the concept to be learned and what is already known
3. applying the concept to a variety of concepts
4. generating new contexts for the learned concept

contextual knowledge

knowing what something is/means by using context clues

word knowledge results from

both incidental and intentional learning experiences

incidental learning experiences

developed naturally through daily living

intentional learning experiences

purposely setting up an environment for encouraging language play, inquiry, and discovery as well as explicit instruction

incidental vocabulary development

occurs through conversation, word play (puns, rhymes, jingles), exposure to spoken words from a variety of sources like TV, radio, and video; reading

earliest vocab is learned through

primary caregivers

"rich" vocab is found ...

in books, not conversations that adults have with children

teachers need to devote time to conceptual understanding of

vocab terms for young and older readers

children with limited oral vocabularies predict ....

limited reading comprehension later in their schooling experiences

what are some activities that encourage "classroom" talk

project work, role-playing, storytelling, discussion, drama

who needs "classroom" talk

all students

intentional vocabulary development

making time to develop full word knowledge-depth/breadth of concept understanding has been proven beneficial

when students engage in explicit discussions identifying synonyms, antonyms, connotations, and nuances of the language, students were helped to

clarify misunderstandings and were redirected to improve their reading comprehension

through direct instruction

think aloud and providing support for practice and clarification to scaffold strategies/techniques for independent word learning

teachers should go beyond introducing new words before reading, they should ...

1. provide rich and varied language experiences
2. teach individual words
3. teach word learning strategies
4. foster word consciousness

when does vocabulary need to be addressed?

prior, during, and after reading a text, providing repeated and reflective experiences with the words targeted for study

school failure

rote vocabulary experiences presented in the abstract so students cannot grasp surface or underlying meaning

teachers should teach vocabulary by...

using word manipulation, personal connections and associations, should include deeper processing, mnemonic devices, key word strategies for retention of content words

conceptual base of understanding

underlying knowledge of subject matter-with which to expand vocabulary knowledge

when should you teach vocabulary?

before, during, after reading

is letting students read freely in class or at home sufficient for large vocabulary growth?

no

what are the 3 tiers for prioritizing/selecting words for specific instruction?

Tier 1, 2 and 3

Tier 1 are words that are considered ___ for understanding and communicating

basic

Tier 1 words are ___ ___ words

high frequency

Tier 2 words are targeted for study in ES and include words ....

that label precisely and occur across subject areas

Tier 3 words are more ___ and often used at advanced levels of study

technical

what is the P in teaching vocab.?

students need preparation in vocabulary before reading a chapter or lesson but the work should not stop there

what is the A in teaching vocab?

often students need assistance with vocabulary during or immediately after reading

What is the R in teaching vocab?

for in-depth word learning students need longer periods of reflection to study vocabulary and attempt to understand how terms convey meaning and relationships

PAR supports specialized type of language development needed for students to come to ....

full word understanding of the academic and content specific vocabulary necessary for study and life application

content learning involves ...

gaining a clear understanding of sets of terms used in the content area

When teaching vocabulary in preparation for reading --

it improves student comprehension regardless of student's reading ability

students should explore and attempt to make sense of words....

before they begin to read; they should link what they know to the words as they will be used in the content area

what are some strategies that can be used to teach vocabulary in preparation for reading (buzz, buzz)

word inventories, graphic organizers, semantic maps, modified cloze, vocabulary connections, capsule vocabulary

word inventories

self inventories of terms; often found at the beginning of chapters

why should you use word inventories?

it encourages learners to assess their own prior knowledge and rate themselves

semantic maps

graphic organizer that is excellent for depicting interrelationships and hierarchies of concepts in a lesson

why should you use semantic maps?

they increase reading comprehension and vocabulary learning. they can be used as a pre and post reading exercise

possible sentence

combines vocabulary and prediction. Students are given 5-8 words they are to use in a sentence. While reading, they look for "real" meaning and write new sentence - it can create a mnemonic

why should you use possible sentences?

can create mnemonic; it acquaints students with new vocabulary that they will encounter in their reading; give purpose for reading as they attempt to find "real" meaning of words

Teaching vocabulary to Assist students in their reading

students need to be aware of their own reading to determine what words they don't understand.

what should students do when they find words they don't understand?

highlight, use sticky notes, to mark unknown or interesting words

what should students use to help determine meaning of unknown words?

context clues, morphology, dictionaries

define context clue discovery (buzz, buzz)

they think of the word in isolation and try to define it; read to find out which one was used

define structural analysis/morphemic analysis

process of taking word apart -- prefix, root, suffix. It provides a way to examine the word to determine meaning

morpheme

smallest unite of meaning

mnemonics

provide a ready reminder of several factors that help determine a word's meaning

dictionaries should be used as ____ _____ _____ when figuring out the meaning of a word

the last source

Jot Charts/Organizational Charts (buzz, buzz)

used to compare/contrast words

how is Jot Chart used

teacher sets up table/matrix and encourages students to fill it in while reading. To modify for some students, parts of chart may be filled in

why should teachers use Jot Charts?

helps students understand the relationship and build meaning as they read. When they are completed, they are a good study guide. If filled in by groups, social aspects of learning can be included.

word attack paradigms

give students a way to attempt newly found words without resorting to the dictionary

how do students use word attack paradigms

context clues, take off affixes to see if word is known, break word into syllables-known?, sound out or stretch word, look in glossary, ask a friend/teacher, look in dictionary

is using the dictionary helpful?

not particularly helpful in building and encouraging vocab development

Teaching vocabulary as a reflection activity

the reflection phase of vocabulary development holds much promise in helping students thoroughly grasp the meaning of difficult terms in their reading

why should teachers use WORD PUZZLES as a reflective activity to teach vocab?

teachers enters word and definition into a computer program and it constructs the puzzle; good review and allows students to practice/reflect on words

what is TOAST (reflective vocab tool - buzz)

T:test - self test
O:organize - words organized into semantically related groups (structure/function)
A:anchor-word in memory by using a keyword method (picture/caption to term)
S:say-review by calling out the spellings
T:test-immediately after each review, students administer a posttest

vocabulary self-collection strategy-VSS (buzz, buzz)

cooperative vocab activity that allows both teachers and students to share words that they wish to learn and remember

when does VSS begin?

after the reading assignment. each student should contribute one word

what are some reflection strategies?

VSS, TOAST, word puzzles, post graphic organizers, word sorts

language enrichment through reflection

fun ways to learn new words
word analogies, magic squares, vocabulary illustrations, vocabulary bingo, word bubbles, odd word out

Word analogies are ...

excellent for teaching higher order thinking skills
______ is to ______ as _____ is to ________

vocabulary illustrations

define word of piece of paper, draw/illustrate word, then write a sentence that goes along with the sentence

vocabulary bingo

allows students to play with words in a relaxed atmosphere

what is the main reason for vocabulary study?

develop concepts and help students see relationships in their reading

vocabulary study is a must for _____ and __________

comprehension; fluency

Preparation strategies help elevate word consciousness, provide ....

personal connections and build background to aid in understanding

Teachers should also assist students with long term aids ...

and strategies to help them understand unfamiliar words.

It may be best to have students reflect on..

difficult words after reading when they have established a conceptual base of knowledge with which to learn

by reconsidering and reflecting on selected vocabulary, students get ...

opportunities for in-depth vocabulary knowledge development for later reference as independent learners

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