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Seven Sacraments

Baptism; Confession/Reconciliation; Holy Communion; Confirmation; Matrimony; Holy Orders; Extreme Unction

Hierarchy of Afterlife

Heaven; Purgatory; Hell

Hierarchy of the Church

Laity; Monks and Nuns; Priest (Parish); Bishops (Diocese); Archbishops; Cardinals; Pope

Grace

a supernatural gift from god to angels and humans

Middle Ages Prelude to Disaster

Northern European Great Famine of 1315-1322; drought/storms; high food prices; economic fiascos; epidemics; abandoned homes; countryside suffers; Jews, rich, and speculators blamed

Black Death

transmitted by fleas to rats and spread from sailor to sailor; came to Italy in 1347; by end of 1348 all of Europe affected; overcrowding and little sanitation helped spread; Jews blamed; most countries lost 1/4 of their population

Pathology and Care of Black Plague

priest, munks, nuns cared for and buried dead (so high death rates of these people); economy revived because no overpopulation anymore; more pessimism; no more funerals; increased education

Flagellants

whipped and scourged themselves as penance for their and societies sins

Causes of The Hundred Years' War (1337-1453)

dispute between English King Edward III and French King Philip VI because Philip violated treaty and said he was vassal of the crown for the duchy of Aquitaine; Edward declared war; French civil war broke out; propaganda

Course of the Hundred Years' War

Battle of Crécy in 1346 where English butchered French; Edward III son's, Edward the Black Prince captured French king in Battle of Poitiers; English won Battle of Agincourt and reconquest of Normandy; French won because Joan of Arc convinced king to revive Orleans which stimulated French patriotism

Consequences of Hundred Years' War

France had vast population decline, destroyed farmland, terrible economy; English spent alot of money, lost knights in local gov, bad economy; caused formation of Parliament; "nationalism" grew

The Babylonian Captivity (1309-1376)

Philip the Fair of France pressured Pope Clement V to settle in Avignon; this caused instability in Papal States; in 1377 Pope Gregory XI went back to Rome; Pope Urban VI came next and too powerful so excommunicated; new Pope Clement VII elected and resides in Avignon; this caused Great Schism because people had to choose between the popes

Great Schism

religious faith weakened, rise of instability, church leadership disgraced, and led to Conciliar Movement

Conciliarists

people who believed that reform of the church could best be achieved through periodic assemblies or general councils representing all the Christian people

Marsiglio of Padua

rector of University of Paris; published Defensor Pacis (The Defender of the Peace); excommunicated because said state had more power than church

Jeremy Bentham

(1748-1832) British theorist and philosopher who proposed utilitarianism, the principle that governments should operate on the basis of utility, or the greatest good for the greatest number.

Edmund Burke

1729-1797) Member of British Parliament and author of Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), which criticized the underlying principles of the French Revolution and argued conservative thought.

Burschenschaften

Politically active students around 1815 in the German states proposing unification and democratic principles.

Carbonari

Italian secret societies calling for a unified Italy and republicanism after 1815

Carlsbad Decrees

(1819) Repressive laws in the German states limiting freedom of speech and dissemination of liberal ideas in the universities.

Decembrist

Russian revolutionaries calling for constitutional reform in the early nineteenth century

Frederick William IV

(1840-1861)-King of Prussia who promised and later reneged on his promises for constitutional reforms in 1848

Francois Guizot

(1787-1874)-Chief minister under Louis Philippe. Guizot's repression led to the revolution of 1848

Holy Alliance

An alliance envisioned by Alexander I of Russia by which those in power were asked to rule in accord with Christian principles

Louie Napoleon Bonaparte

(1808-1873)-Nephew of Napoleon I; he came to power as president of the Second French Republic in 1848

Prince Clemens von Metternich

(1773-1859)-Austrian member of the nobility and chief architect of conservative policy at the Congress of Vienna

John Stuart Mill

(1806-1873)-British philosopher who published On Liberty (1859), advocating individual rights against government intrusion, and The Subjection of Women (1869), on the cause of women's rights

Poor Law of 1834

Legislation that restricted the number of poverty-stricken eligible for aid

Quadruple Alliance-

Organization, made up of Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia, to preserve the peace settlement of 1815; France joined in 1818

Rotten boroughs

Depopulated areas of England that nevertheless sent representatives to Parliament

Zollverein

Economic customs union of German states established in 1818 by Prussia and including almost all German-speaking states except Austria by 1844

Repeal of Test Act

(1828)-Allowed Protestants who were not members of the Church of England to hold public office

Catholic Emancipation Bill (1829)

Enabled Catholics to hold public office for the first time

Reform Bill of 1832

Gave vote to all men who paid ten pounds in rent a year; eliminated the rotten boroughs

Slavery

Abolished in the British Empire, 1833

Factory Act

Limited children's and adolescents workweek in textile factories

Corn Laws

Repealed in 1846. They had imposed a tariff on imported grain and were a symbolic protection of aristicratic landholdings

Michael Bakunin

(1814-1876) Radical Russian, advocated revolutionary violence. He believed that revolutionary movements should be lead by secret societies who would seize power, destroy the state and create a new social order

Henry Bessemer

1813-1898) Englishman who developed the Bessemer converter, the first efficient method forthe mass production of steel

Louis Blanc

(1811-1882) Wrote the Organization of Work (1840) which proposed the use of competition to eliminate competition. It wasthe first step toward a future socialist society. Advocated the principle of "from each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs

Classical liberalism

Middle class (bourgeois) doctrine indebted to the writings of the philosophes, the French Revolution, and the popularization of the Scientific Revolution. Its politi8cal goals were self government (concept ofthe general will); a written constitution; natural rights (speech, religion, press, property, mobility); limited suffrage; its economic goals were laissez-faire (free trade -- no government interference inthe workings of the economy)

Dialectical materialism

The idea, according to Karl Marx, that change and development in history results from the conflict between social classes. Economic forces impel human beings to behave in socially determined ways

Domestic system

The manufacture of goods in the household setting, a productdon system that gave way to the factory system

Friedrich Engels

(1820-1895) Collaborator with Karl Marx. Engels was a textile factory owner and supplied Marx with the hard data for his economic writings, most notably Das Kapttal (l867)

Roger Fenton

Battlefield photographer of the Crimean War

J. G. Fichte

(1762-1814)-Gerrnan writer who believed that the German spirit was nobler and purer than that of other peoples

Charles Fourier

(1772-1837)-A leading utopian socialist who envisaged small communal societies in which men and women cooperated in agriculture and industry, abolishing private property and monogamous marriage as well

Hegelian dialectic

the idea, according to G. W. F. Hegel (1770-1831), a German philosopher, that social change results from the conflict of opposite ideas. The thesis is confronted by the antithesis, resuiting in a synthesis, which then becomes a new thesis. The process is evolutionary. Marx turned Hegel "upside down" and made class conflict, not ideas, the force driving history forward

J. G. Herder

(1774-1803)-Forerunner of the German Romantic movement who believed that each people shared a national character, or Volksgeist

Thomas Malthus

(1776-1834)-English parson whose Essay on Population (1798) argued that population would always increase faster than the food supply

Karl Marx

(1818-1883)-German philosopher and founder of Marxism, the theory that class conflict is the motor force driving historical change and development

Robert Owen

(1771-1858) Utopian socialists who improved health and safety conditions in mills, increased workers wages and reduced hours. Dreamed of establishing socialist communities the most noteable was New Harmony (1826) which failed

David Ricardo

(1772-1823)-English economist who formulated the "iron law of wages," according to which wages would always remain at the subsistence level for the workers because of population growth

William Russell

British journalist who reported the events of the Crimean War first hand for the people at home

Herbert Spencer

(1820-1903)-English philosopher who argued that in the difflcuit economic struggle for existence, only the "fittest" would survive

Flora Tristan

(1803-1844)-Soclalist and feminist who called for working women's social and political rights

Otto von Bismarck

(1815-1898)-Prussian chancellor who engineered a series of wars to unify Germany under his authoritarian rule

Bundesrat

The upper house, or Federal Council, of the German Diet (legislature)

Count Cavour

(1810-1861)-Italian statesman from Sardinia who used diplomacy to help achieve unification of Italy

Francis Deak

(1803-1876) Magyar, who forced Franz Joseph to agree to the Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich) which created the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary

Ems Telegram

The carefully edited dispatch by Bismarck to the French ambassador Benedetti that appeared to be insulting and thus requiring retaliation by France for the seeming affront to French honor

Giuseppe Garibaldi

(1807-1882)-Soldier of fortune who amassed his "Red Shirt" army to bring Naples and Sicily into a unified Italy

House of Savoy

The Italian dynasty ruling the independent state of Piedmont- Sardinia. Its head was King Victor Emmanuel II

Indemnity Bill

(1867-The bill passed by the German Reichstag that legitimated Bismarck's unconstitutional collection of taxes to modernize the army in 1863

Kulturkampf

Bismarck's anticlerical campaign to expel Jesuits from Germany and break off relations with Vatican. Eventually, after little success, Bismarck halted these policies

Ferdinand Lassalle

(1825-1864)-Leader of the revisionist socialists, who hoped to achieve socialism through the ballot rather than the bullet. They agreed to work within the framework of the existing government.

Giuseppe Mazzini

(1805-1872)-Idealistic patriot devoted to the principle of united and republican Italy in a world of free states

Napoleon III

(1852-1870)-The former Louis Napoleon, who became president of the Second Republic of France in 1848 and engineered a coup d'état, ultimately making himself head of the Second Empire

Nationalism

The shared belief among peoples of a common heritage, culture, and customs, and speaking a similar language (there may be dialect differences)

Daniel O'Connell

(1775-1847) Irish advocate for the of the Penal Laws against Catholics. Tried to have repealed the Act of Union of 1800, which linked Britain and Ireland legislatively. His election to Parliament for the passage of the1829 Catholic Emancipation Act which declared Catholics were eligible for Public Office

Parnell, Charles Stewart

(1846-1891) elected to Parliament in 1875 he came to prominence by obstructing other legislation to gain a hearing for home rule for Ireland. In 1885 Parnell's party won 86 seats, exactly the number of votes separating the Liberals (335) from the Conservatives (249). This forced Gladstone to announced his support for a HOME RULE BILL

Realpolitik

The "politics of reality," i.e., the use of practical means to achieve ends. Bismarck was a practitioner

"Red Shirt"

Volunteers in Garibaldi's army

Reichstag

The lower house of the German Diet, or legislature

Risorgimento

Italian drive and desire for unity

Siege of Paris

The four-month Prussian assault on the French capital after Napoleon III's surrender in 1870

Schleswig-Holstein

Two duchies located south of Denmark. In 1863 Schleswig was annexed by Denmark prompting Bismarck's Danish War

Treaty of Frankfurt

The end of the Franco-Prussian War, which ceded the territories of Alsace and most of Lorraine to Germany

Young Italy

An association under the leadership of Mazzini that urged the unification of the country

Alexander II

(1855-1881)-Reforming czar who emancipated the serfs and introduced some measure of representative local government

Alexander III

(1881-1894-Politically reactionary czar who promoted economic modernization of Russia

Boyar

Russian noble

Catherine the Great

(1762-1796)-An "enlightened despot" of Russia whose policies of reform were aborted under pressure of rebellion by serfs

Church Statute of 1721

A Holy Synod that replaced the office of patriarch. All of its members (lay and religious) had to swear allegiance to the czar

Crimean War

(1853-1856)-Conflict ostensibly waged to protect Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire, in actuality to gain a foothold in the Black Sea. Turks, Britain, and France forced Russia to sue for peace. The Treaty of Paris (1856) forfeited Russia's right to maintain a war fleet in the Black Sea. Russia also lost the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia

Decembrist Revolt

The 1825 plot by liberals (upper-class intelligentsia) to set up a constitutional monarchy or a republic. The plot failed, but the ideals remained

Duma

Russian national legislature

Emancipation Edict

(1861-The imperial law that abolished serfdom in Russia and, on paper, freed the peasants. In actuality they were collectively responsible for redemption payments to the government for a number of years

Father Gapon

Leader of the factory workers who assembled before the czar's palace to petition him on January 1905 (Bloody Sunday)

Ivan the Great

(1462-1505 )The Slavic Grand Duke of Moscow, he ended nearly 200 years of Mongol domination of his dukedom. From then on he worked at extending his territories, subduing he nobles, and attaining absolute power

Ivan the Terrible

(1533-1584) earned his nickname for his great acts of cruelty directed toward all those with whom he disagreed. He became the first ruler to assume the title Czar of all Russia

Kulak

An independent and propertied Russian farmer

Mir

Village commune where the emancipated serfs lived and worked collectively in order to meet redemption payments to the government

Nicholas II

(1894-1917)-The last czar of the Romanov dynasty, whose government collapsed under the pressure of World War 1

Sofia Perovskiai

The first woman to be executed for a political crime in Russia. She was a member of a militant movement that assassinated Czar Alexander II in 1881

Pugechev

(1726-1775)-Head of the bloody peasant revolt in 1773 that convinced Catherine the Great to throw her support to the nobles and cease internal reforms

Michael Romanov

(1613-16##) In 1613 an assembly of nobels chose Michael as the new czar. For the next 300 years the Romanov family ruled in Russia

Peter Stolypin

(1862-1911)-Russian minister under Nicholas II who encouraged the growth of private farmers and improved education for enterprising peasants

Sergei Witte

(1849-1915 )-Finance minister under whom Russia industrialized and began a program of economic modernization, founder of the Transiberian Railroad

Zemstovo

A type of local government with powers to tax and make laws; essentially, a training ground for democracy, dominated by the property-owning class when established in 1864

Eduard Bernstein

(1850-1932)-Revisionist German Social Democrat who favored socialist revolution by the ballot rather than the bullet-i.e, by cooperating with the bourgeois members of Parliament and securing electoral victories for his party (the SDP)

"Cat and Mouse Act"

(1913)-Law that released suffragettes on hunger strikes from jail and then rearrested and jailed them again

Conservativc Party

Formerly the Tory Party, headed by Disraeli in the nineteenth century

Charles Darwin

(1809-1882)-British scientist whose Origin of Species (1859) proposed the theory of evolution based on his biological research

Benjamin Disraeli

(1804-1881)-Leader of the British Tory Party who engineered the Reform Bill of 1867, which extended the franchise to the working class. Added the Suez Canal to English overseas holdings

Alfred Dreyfus

(1859-1935)-French Jewish army captain unfairly convicted of espionage in a case that lasted from 1894 to 1906

Fabian Society

Group of English socialists, including George Bernard Shaw, who advocated electoral victories rather than violent revolution to bring about social change

Sigmund Freud

(1856-1939)-Viennese psychoanalyst whose theory of human personality based on sexual drives shocked Victorian sensibilities

William Gladstone

1809-1898) English Prime Minister (Liberal) known as the "Grand Old Man." Instituted liberal reforms which were designed to remove long standing abuses without destroying existing institutions. He believed in Home Rule for Ireland. In 1870 he passed the Education Act of 1870 and the Order in Council which replaced patronage as a means of entering civil service with competitive examinations. In 1871 he removed the Anglician religion qualification for faculty positions at Oxford and Cambridge universities and introduced The Ballot act of 1872 which provided for a secret ballot

Jean Jaures

(1859-1914)-French revisionist socialist who was assassinated for his pacifist ideals at the start of World War 1

Liberal Party

Formerly the Whig Party, headed by Gladstone in the nineteenth century

Friedrich Nietzsche

(1844-1900)-German philosopher and forerunner of the modern existentialist movement; he stressed the role of the Ubermensch or Superman, who would rise above the common herd of mediocrity

Caroline Norton

(1808-1877)-British feminist whose legal persistence resulted in the Married Women s Property Act (1883), which gave married women the same property rights as unmarried women

Emmeline Pankhurst

(1858-1928)-British suffragette and founder of the Women's Social and Political Union

Parliament Act of 1911

Legislation that deprived the House of Lords of veto power in all money matters. (realistically curtails the power of the House of Lords

Paris Commune

The revolutionary municipal council, led by radicals, that engaged in a civil war (March-May 1871) with the National Assembly of the newly established Third Republic, set up after the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco- Prussian War

Rerum Novarum

(1891-Papal encyclical of Leo XIII (1878-1903) that upheld the right of private property but criticized the inequities of capitalism. It recommended that Catholics form political parties and trade unions to redress the poverty and insecurity fostered under capitalism

Revisionists

Marxists who believed that workers empowered to vote could obtain their ends through democratic means without revolution and the dictatorship of the proletariat, known as revisionism

SDP

The Social Democratic Party in Germany, based on Marx's Ideology

Syllabus of Errors

(1864)-Doctrine of Pope Pius IX (1846-1878) that denounced belief in reason and science and attacked "progress, liberalism, and modern civilization

Syndicalism

The French trade-unionist belief that workers would become the governmental power through a general strike that would paralyze society

Syndicats

French trade unions

Vatican Council of 1870

Gathering of Catholic church leaders that proclaimed the doctrine of papal infallibility

Article 231

Provision of the Versailles Treaty that blamed Germany for World War 1

Black Hand

The Serbian secret society alleged to be responsible for assassinating Archduke Francis Ferdinand

Blank Check

Reference to the full support provided by William II to Austria- Hungary in its conflict with Serbia. Al;so refers to the promise of support given by Russia to Serbia to develop of Slavic state

Dreadnought

A battleship with increased speed and power over conventional warships, developed by both Germany and Great Britain to increase their naval arsenals. Carried 10 300mm guns mounted in 5 turrets

Dual Monarchy

An 1867 compromise between the Germans of Austria-Bohemia and the Magyars of Germany to resolve the nationalities problem by creating the empire of Austria and the kingdom of Hungary, with a common ministry for finance, foreign affairs, and war

Encirclement

Before both world wars, the policy of other European countries that, Germany claimed, prevented German expansion, denying it the right to acquire "living room" (Lebensraum)

Entente Cordiale

The 1904 "gentleman's agreement" between France and Britain establishing a close understanding

Fourteen Points

Wilson's peace plans calling for freedom of the seas, arms reduction, and the right of self-determination for ethnic groups

Free Trade

An economic theory or policy of the absence of restrictions or tariffs on goods imported into a country. There is no "protection" in the form of tariffs against foreign competition

Imperialism

The acquisition and administration of colonial areas, usually in the interests of the administering country. (The Second Age of Exploration)

Indemnities

Financial demands placed on loser nations

League of Nations

A proposal included in Wilson's Fourteen Points to establish an international organization to settle disputes and avoid future wars

Lusitania

British merchant liner carrying ammunition and passengers that was sunk by a German U-boat in 1915. The loss of 139 American lives on board was a factor bringing the United States into World War I

Algecira

The site of the 1906 conference in Spain at which German involvement in Morocco was rebuffed by Britain and France acting in unison

Agatir

The site of the landing of the German gunboat in Morocco in 1911. William II tried to force the French to make concessions to Germany in Africa. Like the first crisis, this one drew Britain and France closer together

Pan-Slavism

The movement to unite Slavs in the Balkans

Revanche

The French desire for revenge against Germany for the loss of Alsace and Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War (1870)

Sarajevo

The Balkan town in the Austro-Hungarian province of Bosnia where Gavrilo Princip assassinated Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the throne

Schlieffen Plan

Top-secret German strategy to fight a two-front war against Russia and France. The idea was to invade neutral Belgium for a quick victory against France, and then direct German forces against a more slowly mobilizing Russia

Self-determination

The ability of an ethnic group to decide how it wishes to be governed, as an independent nation or as part of another country

Social Darwinism

The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle

Three Emperors' League

The 1873 alliance between Germany, Austria, and Russia

Triple Alliance

The 1882 alliance between Germany, Austria, and Italy

Triple Entente

After 1907, the alliance between England, France, and Russia

Weltpolitik

("world politics")-The policy of making Germany a major global power through an expanding navy and the acquisition of colonies, the dream of William II

Woodrow Wilson

(1856-1924)-President of the United States and key figure in the peace conferences following World War I; he intended to make the world "safe for democracy."

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