HRWC Final Terms

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Clement of Rome

This person was an apostolic father. He wrote a letter to the church at Corinth informing them of apostolic succession.

Josephus

This person was a Jewish Pharisee who was captured by Titus and employed to offer information on Israel and Judaism. He helped dampen Jewish uprisings in Israel, and wrote "Wars of the Jews" and was hired by Emperor Vespasion to write about Titus' campaigns.

Ignatius of Antioch

This person wrote 7 letters while held captive by Emperor Trajan which help explain church history. He combated docetism, urged unity, and stressed apostolic succession.

Justin Martyr

This person was originally a philosopher until he lost a debate to a Christian apologist. He was converted by seeing Christian martyrs and became an apologist. He started a Roman school until he was martyred.

Irenaeus of Lyons

This person stressed the importance of Scriptural authority. He affirmed the OT and apostolic writings as true, and stressed apostolic succession and church authority.

Tertullian

This person was a scholar who was a lawyer. He wrote in both Latin and Greek, and after becoming a Christian criticised Judaism and Greek philosophy, not wanting them to mix with Christianity. He gave an explanation of the trinity as three persons and one substance, and later became a Montanist.

Marcionism

This heresy holds that Jesus didn't suffer on the cross and wasn't born, and that the gods of the NT and OT are separate beings.

Montanism

This heresy relished martyrdom and rigorous asceticism, and held Phrygia as the new Jerusalem. The Holy Spirit prophesied through the leader, so rejecting him is blaspheming the Holy Spirit. Two followers were Priscilla and Maximilla, and they were condemned by the first known synod of bishops.

Origen

This person was a prolific writer who lived a simple lifestyle. He wrote over 2000 works, approached scripture allegorically, and travelled and lectured. He thought Jesus was a "second God" and was his teachings were condemned as heretical after the church "worked out the trinity."

Cyprian

This person was the Bishop of Carthage who fled from the Decian persecution. He held that sacraments outside his church were invalid after a schism occurred, and wanted to rebaptise them. He was martyred before a conflict with Stephen of Rome.

Gnosticism

This heresy holds salvation comes through a secret knowledge which only the elect have. There is a general dualism between the gods of the NT and OT. The early church traces it to Simon of Samaria (Acts 8) but the most famous was Valentinus.

Monarchianism

This heresy emphasises the "oneness" of God. Dynamic (adoptionism) teaches Jesus was just a man until he was adopted by God at baptism, while modalist teaches God operates in different modes at different times.

Ambrose

This person was the Bishop of Milan. He rejected Arianism when Valentinian demanded it, and forced Theodosius to repent after killing rioters. He claimed authority over the emperor, laying the foundation for church-state relations later.

John Chrysostom

This person was called "golden-mouthed" because he was eloquent and famous. We have 600 of his sermons, and he was the Bishop of Constantinople until he criticised the empress and was exiled repeatedly. He died in transit to one of the exiles.

Jerome

This person became a hermit and started monasteries. He was the secretary to the bishop of Rome, who asked him to translate the old Latin version of the Bible into the vulgate. He travelled to Israel to learn the languages better, ant translated works of Eusebius and Origen.

Arianism

This heresy held that Jesus was a created being, and used John 3:16 to say Jesus was begotten. The titles of Jesus were courtesy. Athanasius opposed it, because their Jesus couldn't redeem fallen humanity, and it didn't align with the Bible.

Council of Nicaea

This council was called by the emperor to resolve a schism in the church. It was the first ecumenical council, so all bishops were present and had equal votes. It rejected Arianism.

Constantine

This person was the first Christian Roman emperor. He saw a cross in the sky reading, "In this sign you will conquer" and the cross became his army's mark. He signed the Edict of Milan in 313, which legalised Christianity.

Augustine

This person studied rhetoric at Carthage, and was originally a Manichean but converted to Christianity after hearing Ambrose speak and hearing children sing "pick up and read." He moved to Carthage and started a monastery, then became the bishop. He wrote Confessions and City of God.

Pelagianism

This heresy started with a monk who saw the immorality of Rome and decided it was possible to become perfect and sin no more. Augustine combated the heresy by saying the ability not to sin is divine. The church condemned the heresy, but didn't fully accept Augustine's double predestination.

Benedict of Nursia

This person was disgusted with the corruption of Rome and became a hermit. He eventually founded a monastery at Monte Cassino, and his rule became the standard for western monks.

Leo I

This person was a pope called "pontifex maximus." He said to deny the Pope is to deny Peter, and to deny Peter is to deny God. He wrote a treatise about the nature of Christ that was the basis for Chalcedon.

Gregory the Great

This person was the founder of the medieval papacy, and was the prefect of Rome before becoming a monk, then an abbot, then the Pope of Constantinople. He reformed the papacy, paid off the Lombards, sponsored missionary work, and clarified doctrines of purgatory, relics, images and mass for the dead. He wrote Pastoral Rule.

Boniface

This person was an apostle to German who established monasteries and chopped down a sacred pagan oak, preached to the upper classes, and was martyred by Barbarians.

Clovis

This person was king of the Franks, who were a pagan Germanic tribe. He married a Catholic princess named Clotild and converted to Catholicism, baptising all his soldiers. He was still treacherous and brutal, and divided his empire between his sons when he died.

Charles Martel

This person was called "the hammer." He was Mayor of the Palace in the Frankish kingdom. He beat the Muslim army at the Battle of Tours, which stopped the spread of Muslim advancement. He assumed the Frankish throne, and refused to fight against the Lombards when the Pope asked him to.

Charlemagne

This person was the king of the Roman Empire who was in a continual power struggle with the pope. The pope crowned him on Christmas, which subjugated him, then he appoints bishops and calls synods, which is the rule of the Pope. He reformed the church regarding the Gregorian chant, mass, priest's clothes, and the vulgate.

Cluny

This person's goals were to return to a literal understanding of the Benedictine rule, except for prayer instead of manual labour. He emphasised silence, and had a charter from Duke William of Aquitane providing: the Abbott was chosen by monks, the monastery was free from the bishop, and all monasteries would be entitled to this charter.

Muhammad

This person was called on "The Night of Power and Excellence" to Mt. Hira, where the angel Gabriel commanded him to "iqra." His message was one god, Allah, a coming day of judgement, and was Allah's messenger. He was rejected by Meccans, and migrated to Medina. He later marched on Mecca, but signed a peace treaty keeping money earning pilgrimages.

Sunni

This sect of Islam makes up 90% of Muslims, chooses the caliphate by election, has imams who are religious leaders, and has caliphs who are in charge of politics and military control.

Shi'a

This sect of Islam makes up 10% of Muslims, gives all leadership to the imam, who must be a direct descendant of Muhammad and Ali, and holds Hussein, a martyr, in high regard. They read his account during Kraya, and relish the status of the "persecuted, martyred, minority" group.

What the Qur'an says Jesus is not

This teaching holds that Jesus was not God's son, divine, crucified and resurrected, or an atoning sacrifice.

Five Pillars of Islam

This doctrine teaches witness (recitation of faith thrice,) prayer six times a day, almsgiving, fasting during Ramadan, and a pilgrimage.

Henry IV

This person was the HRE who fought with Gregory VII. He appointed a bishop, defying Gregory, and called a council who denounced Gregory. Gregory excommunicated him, he repented, and Gregory was forced to forgive him. Gregory prophesied his death, but he marched on Rome and appointed Guibert pope.

Gregory VII

This person was the pope who rooted out immorality in priests, and condemned lay investiture. Henry IV defied him, and he excommunicated Henry. Henry repented, and he was forced to forgive Henry. He claimed Rudolf was the rightful king and prophesied Henry's death, but Henry killed Rudolf. Henry marched on Rome, this person hid and called the Normans, but they captured him and sacked the city.

Great Schism

This was the split between the RCC and the EOC in 1054. It was catalysed by differences in language, cultural differences, bishopric competition, iconoclasm, and the filoque controversy. Pope Leo IX send a delegation to the Patriarch of Constantinople, and they fought for a while, until they both excommunicated each other.

Eastern Orthodox Church

This sect believes that the emperor is the head of the church, and places the ecumenical church council as the greatest authority. It is sometimes called the "church of the seven councils." It holds to theosis, or the process of becoming god-like.

First Crusade

This was made up two groups that answered Pope Urban's call: Peter the Hermit, and the German Army. Peter the Hermit led 100,000 peasants, poor knights, women, and children who were massacred by the Turkish Army. The German Army persecuted Jews and Muslims in European lands. They took Urban's charge as justification for killing all enemies of Christ.

Fourth Crusade

This resulted in Christians attacking other Christians for commercial gain: Pope Innocent III called for help because the Muslisms held Jerusalem, so they struck a deal with Venetian traders to sack their Christian rival in exchange for a ride to Egypt. Then they sack Constantinople, forcing them to worship with Latin liturgy and weakening the empire.

St. Francis of Assisi

This person was wealthy, then was involved in a war, and converted to Christianity. He saw visions, preached, sold his possessions, and wandered. He gave his followers the rule of poverty, led them to Rome, and started the Friars Minor. He tried to convert the Sultan, received the stigmata, and wrote "Canticle to the Sun."

Thomas Aquinas

This person was the greatest scholastic theologian of the MA. He wrote enough to fill 18 volumes, including Summa Theologica. He used Aristotelian logic, making philosophy based on data. He wrote "Five Ways" to prove God's existence, developed internally consistent systems of thought, and was made the official theologian of the RCC.

Franciscans

This monastic group began as the Friars Minor. It eventually split over the temptation/necessity to own land. The Pope let them alter the rule, but some rejected this and were denounced for questioning the papal office. Examples of these are Bonaventure and William of Ockham, and Raymond Lull dedicated his life to winning Muslims to Christ by learning Arabic.

Dominicans

This monastic order began with someone realising the need for educated clergy to teach the people and win back heretics. They began as the Order of Preachers, and followed Augustine's Rule, abandoning manual labour for academics. They became the leading education of medieval Catholicsm and was in constant competition with the more spiritual Franciscans.

Waldensians

This "heresy" resulted from a wealthy layman reading the NT in French and finding his prosperity incompatible with Christianity. He was forbidden from preaching, but still spread through Germany, France, and Italy. He was excommunicated by the Pope and persecuted by the Inquisition for his beliefs: nonrecognition of ecclesiastical authority, symbolic interpretation of the eucharist, denial of infant baptism, rejection of purgatory, and pacifism.

Albigensians

This heresy drew ideas from Oriental religions, and held a radical dualism. Because all the material world is evil, the true spirit needs to be released through rigorous asceticism. Two levels existed: Perfects and Believers. Perfects took ascetic vows and often committed suicide to avoid breaking them. They rejected hell, and were rejected by Innocent III.

Avignon Papacy

King Philip of France exerted pressure through French Cardinals to elect French Pope Clement V. Clement lifted Nogaret's excommunication, commended Philip for his handling of Boniface, and moved the papal court to this town in France. Petrarch called this time span of 70 years the "Babylonian Captivity of the Church."

Papal Schism

Pope Gregory XI was vacationing in Rome and died there. There were 16 cardinals and the French had the power, but the Roman mob demanded an Italian Pope. They elected" old and weak" Italian Urban VI who surprisingly sought to reform the church. The cardinals were unhappy and elected a new French Pope Clement VII, but Urban excommunicated all of them.

Counciliarism

This was the movement that held that the council had the highest authority in the church, even above that of the pope. The Council of Constance was the high point of this movement, and ended the Papal Schism, suppressed heresies, and reformed the church by giving the council authority from Christ and holding one every ten years to ensure papal purity.

John Wycliffe

This person taught that the church was spiritual as opposed to physical, an entity made up of all believers. Christ was it's head, not the pope, and the pope wasn't necessarily elect. The Bible had more authority than tradition, and he translated it into English raw without commentary. He held that sacraments weren't necessary for salvation, and challenged transubstantiation.

John Huss

This person embraced Wycliffe's ideas which were similar to the Bohemians. He was excommunicated, and Pope John asked for him to come for excommunication, but Prague protected him. The Pope put Prague under the interdict. HRE Sigismund promised him safe passage to present his views at the Council of Constance, but he was imprisoned upon arrival and burned at the stake.

Humanism

This movement is split into two sections: civic and christian. Civic was an intellectual movement stressing the classics, citizen responsibility, and rising to a new level of thinking. Classic writers were referenced, and Lorenzo Valla wanted to return to Classic Latin. Christian was the religious part of this movement and took place in the north. They studied Hebrew and Greek, which led to a criticism of the church, when they found that the church's views didn't necessarily align with the Bible

Martin Luther

This person began the reformation by posting the 95 Theses. He stressed salvation by scripture, faith, and grace alone, along with the priesthood of all believers. This led to a peasant revolt, and various uprisings in the church. He married a nun, had children, and used scatological language in his writings.

John Calvin

This person taught that God elects people to heaven. He ruled Geneva and wrote "Institutes of the Christian Religion" which held that the church was an institute alongside state.

Ulrich Zwingli

This person was part of the Reformed Protestantism, which taught humanism, theology, and radicalism. He advocated for the eating of meat during lent, and interpreted the Bible more metaphorically than Luther.

Lutheran Reformation

This refers to the reformation that began when Martin Luther posted the 95 Theses, and is based on sola scriptura, sola fide, sola gratia, and the priesthood of all believers.

English Reformation

This refers to the Reformation that took place because King Henry VIII wanted a divorce from Catherine of Aragon. Thomas Cranmer annulled the marriage and the Pope excommunicated Henry. Later, Queen Elizabeth published the 39 Articles.

Radical Reformation

This refers to the Reformation that demanded that people be rebaptised as adults. It stressed sola scriptura, but Jan Matthys gave them a bad name. Menno Simons was an Anabaptist leader who preached pacifism.

Council of Trent

This refers to the council which was part of the Catholic response to the reformation. It addressed immorality in the church, made Thomas Aquinas the official theologian, made an index of prohibited books, and created canons which refute protestant beliefs.

30 Years War

This fighting began in Bohemia, where a Catholic King was deposed and a Protestant made King. This gave Protestant princes more votes than Catholics, so the HRE attacked and made the area Catholic again. The conflict moved to the Danish, the Swedes, and finally the French, where Cardinal Richelieu turned the battle more political than religious.

Huguenots

This refers to the protestants in France who were inspired by Calvin and fought with the Catholics from 1562 to 1569.

Rene Descartes

This person was a Rationalist Roman Catholic famous for saying, "I think, therefore I am." Doubt comes first, and everything must be judged by reason. Reason proves that God exists, because a good God wouldn't let us be deceived by our own minds.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

This person was a deist during the Enlightenment who held that naturally good man was corrupted by society. Government was based on a social contract, where the gov't was paid to protect its citizens, and they could rebel if the contract was broken. He rejected all church teachings- he was a Christian but not religious.

Voltaire

This person was a deist during the Enlightenment who spent the last 20 years of his life attacking Christianity. He thought that the doctrines of Christianity are superstitious folly, Christianity should be exterminated and replaced with deism.

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