partial degradation of sugars that occurs without the use of oxygen
a catabolic pathway that consumes oxygen and organic molecules, producing ATP. This is the most efficient catabolic pathway and is carried out in most eukaryotic cells and many prokaryotic organisms.
the splitting of glucose into pyruvate (occurs in the cytosol)
the electron donor in a redox reaction (electron donor) -- the addition of electron another substance
the electron acceptor in a redox reaction. (removes electrons)
electron transport chain
a sequence of electron carrier molecules that shuttles electron during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide a coenzyme that can accept an electron and acts as an electron carrier in the electron transport chain.
citric acid cycle
a chemical cycle involving 8 steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules begub in glycolisis by oxididizing pyruvate to carbon dioxide occurs within mitochondrion in eukaryotic cells and in the cytosol prokaryotic the second major stage in cellular respiration. (completes the breakdown of glucose)
the production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain; the third major stage of cellular respiration. (powered by the redox reactions of the electron transport chain)
Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration
both include glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. In aerobic respiration, the final electron acceptor is molecular oxygen. In anaerobic respiration, the final electron acceptor is a different substance.
During the redox reaction in glycolysis, which molecule acts as the oxidizing agent? The reducing agent?
NAD+ acts as the oxidizing agent in step 6, accepting electrons from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, which thus acts as the reducing agent.
Name the molecules that conserve most of the energy from the citric acid cycles redox reactions. How is this energy converted to a form that can be used to make ATP?
NADH and FADH; they will donate electrons to the electron transport chain.
What is the reducing agent in the following reaction? Pyruvate+NADH+H--> Lactate+NAD
H concentration across the membrane holding ATP synthase.
The immediate energy source that divides ATP synthesis by ATP synthase during oxidative phosphorylation is the....
Which metabolic pathway is common to both fermentation and cellular respiration of a glucose molecule?
provide the energy that establishes the protein gradient.
In mitochondria, exergonic redox reactions...
The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain that functions in aerobic oxidative phosphorylation is...
When electrons flow along the electron transport chains of mitochondria, which of the following changes occurs?
The PH of the matrix increases.
Cells do not catobolize carbon dioxide because...
CO2 is already completely oxidized
what is a true distinction between fermentation and cellular respiration?
NADH is oxidized by the electron transport chain in respiration only.
Most CO2 from catabolism is released during..
The citric acid cycle
What cellular processes produce the CO2 that you exhale?
Co2 is released from the pyruvate that is formed during glycolysis, and CO2 is also released during the citric acid cycle.
the catabolic pathways of aerobic and anerobic respiration, which break down organic molecules for the production of ATP. (has three stages: 1.Glycolysis 2. Citric Acid Cycle 3. Oxidative phosphorylation