They traveled from place to place hunting and gathering food
Before the rise of civilization people were nomadic. What does this mean?
Through unwritten customs
How was the behavior of nomadic people regulated?
Nomadic clans to villages to city-states to empires
How did ancient people progress in their social organization?
The Tigris and Euphrates
The first civilizations developed near these two rivers.
Because annual flooding left silt on the surrounding land which enriched the soil
Why did the first civilizations develop in river valleys
They learned to control flooding and use irrigation systems
How did the first farmers cope with challenges posed by rivers?
What was the name of the area that gave birth to the first civilizations?
What do all civilizations need to survive and grow?
What was the first civilization of the ancient world?
1) Centralized government 2) Organized religion 3) Arts, Architecture, and Public Works 4) Job specialization and social classes 5) writing
What are the five key elements of civilization?
Believed in many gods and goddesses
What does polytheistic mean?
Were monotheistic, not polytheistic
How did the Hebrews differ from other ancient people?
To keep their gods happy
What was the most important religious duty of ancient citizens?
What were temples in the Fertile Crescent called?
A shrine to the chief god or goddess of the city
What stood at the top of each Ziggurat?
To make the citizens believe in the power and strength of the rulers and gods
Why did ancient rulers build large palaces and temples?
The will of the gods
What claim did ancient rulers claim to justify their authority?
Leadership was passed from father to son
What does it mean when we say that rulers in the ancient world were hereditary leaders?
They competed to control land and water
What caused conflicts among the first civilizations of the Fertile Crescent?
The first centralized governments in history
What developed as a result of the need to control the rivers, collect taxes, and build public works projects?
Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Hebrews, Hittites, Medes, Persians, Phoenicians, and Sumerians
List any three groups of people who developed civilizations in the Fertile Crescent.
Write laws, collect taxes, provide food supply, and maintain defense
What tasks did the first organized governments perform?
To regulate the behavior of people who were now strangers to one another in cities
Why were the first laws written?
In the ancient world, who was specially trained to read and write?
What did ancient people invent to record grain harvests and keep accurate records of the seasons?
Built irrigation systems, roads, and bridges and kept records of harvests
How did ancient rulers use public works projects to ensure the cities' food supplies?
Built walls around the city to protect it from attack
How did ancient rulers use public work projects to provide for the defense of the city?
People specialized in jobs for the first time
How did cities change the way people worked?
Surplusses in food meant that not everyone had to search for food
Why were people able to specialized in jobs in early civilizations?
The development of the first social classes
Ranking people according to their jobs led to this.