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prokaryote

unicellular organisms that lack a nucleus

bacilli

rod shaped prokaryote

cocci

spherical prokaryotes

spirilla

spiral and corkscrew-shaped prokaryotes

chemoheterotroph

An organism that must consume organic molecules for both energy and carbon.

photoheterotroph

organism that is photosynthetic but needs organic compounds as a carbon source

photoautotroph

organism that uses energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water to carbon compounds

chemoautotroph

organism that makes organic carbon molecules from carbon dioxide using energy from chemical reactions

obligate aerobes

prokaryotes that need oxygen to live

obligate anaerobes

organisms that cannot live where molecular oxygen is present

facultative anaerobes

can live with or without oxygen

binary fission

a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size

conjugation

the direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined

endospore

type of spore formed when a bacterium produces a thick internal wall that encloses its DNA and a portion of its cytoplasm

nitrogen fixation

the process of changing free nitrogen gas into a usable form for plants

virus

particle made up of nucleic acid, protein, and in some cases lipids that can replicate only by infecting living cells

capsid

protein coat of a virus

bacteriophage

virus that infects bacteria

lytic infection

process in which a virus enters a cell, makes a copy of itself, and causes the cell to burst

lysogenic infection

process by which a virus embeds its DNA into the DNA of the host cell and is replicated along with the host cell's DNA

prophage

the viral DNA that is embedded in the host cell's DNA

retrovirus

virus that contains RNA as its genetic information

pathogen

disease-causing agent

vaccine

a preparation of weakened or killed pathogens

antibiotic

compound that blocks the growth and reproduction of bacteria

viroid

single-stranded RNA molecule that has no surrounding capsids

prion

infectious particles composed of protein with no nucleic acid (no DNA or RNA)

cyanobacteria

bacteria that contain chlorophyll a belong to this group

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