Psych Exam 3

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Personality

an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

Free Association

In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.

Psychoanalysis

Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions.

Unconscious

according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processes of which we are unaware.

Id

contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The Id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.

Ego

the largely conscious "executive" part of the personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the Id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.

Superego

the part of the personality that, according to Freud, represents the internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.

Psychosexual Stages

the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.

Oedipus complex

according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for their rival father.

Identification

the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos.

Fixation

according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved.

Defense Mechanism

in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.

Repression

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.

Regression

psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated.

Reaction Formation

psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety arousing unconscious feelings.

Projection

psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.

Rationalization

defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions.

Displacement

psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses towards a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet.

Denial

defense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities.

Collective Unconscious

Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history.

Projective test

a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics.

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.

Rorschach Inkblot Test

the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.

Terror management theory

a theory of death related anxiety; explores people's emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death.

Self actualization

according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill ones potential.

Unconditional Positive regard

according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person.

Self concept

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "who am I?"

Trait

a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self report inventories and peer reports.

Personality Inventory

a questionnaire (often with true, false or agree, disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

the most widely researched and clinically used if all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.

Empirically Derived Test

a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups.

Social

cognitive perspective-views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits (including their thinking) and their social context.

Reciprocal Determination

the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment.

Personal Control

the extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless.

External Locus of Control

the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate.

Internal Locus of control

the perception that you control your own fate.

Learned Helplessness

the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.

Positive Psychology

the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive.

Self

in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions.

Spotlight Effect

overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us).

Self esteem

ones feelings of high or low self worth.

Self serving bias

a readiness to perceive oneself favorably.

Psychological Disorders

deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns.

ADHD

a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

Medical Model

the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital.

DMS IV TR

the American psychiatric association's diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, with an updated "text revision;" a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.

Anxiety Disorders

psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.

Generalized anxiety disorder

an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.

Panic Disorder

an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.

Phobia

an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)

an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions).

Post traumatic stress disorder

an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience.

Post traumatic growth

positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises.

Somatoform disorder

psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause. (See conversions disorder and hypochondriasis.)

Conversion disorder

a rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no psychological basis can be found.

Hypochondriasis

a somatoform disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease.

Dissociative disorders

disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.

Dissociative Identity disorder (DID)

a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Formerly called multiple personality disorder.

Mood disorders

psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes. See major depressive disorder, mania, and bipolar disorder.

Major depressive disorder

a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.

Mania

a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.

Bipolar disorder

a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. (Formerly called manic-depressive disorder.)

Schizophrenia

a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions.

Delusions

false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders.

Personality Disorders

psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.

Antisocial personality disorder

a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.

Eclectic Approach

An approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy.

Psychotherapy

Treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth.

Psychoanalysis

Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences and the therapist's interpretations of them released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self insight.

Resistance

in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material.

Interpretation

In psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviours and events in order to promote insight.

Transference

In psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent).

Psychodynamic Therapy

Therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight.

Insight Therapies

A variety of therapies which aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client's awareness of underlying motives and defenses.

Client-Centered Therapy

A humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening withing a genuine, accepting, empathetic environment to facilitate clients' growth. (Also called person-centered therapy)

Active Listening

Empathetic listening in which the listener echos, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy.

Unconditional Positive Regard

A caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed to be conducive to developing self-awareness and self-acceptance.

Behaviour Therapy

Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviours.

Counter conditioning

A behaviour therapy that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviours; includes exposure therapies and aversive therapies.

Exposure Therapies

Behavioural techniques such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid.

Systematic Desensitization

A type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.

Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy

An anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to stimulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking.

Aversive Conditioning

A type of counter conditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behaviour (such as drinking alcohol).

Token Economy

An operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behaviour and can later exchange for various privledges or treats.

Cognitive Therapy

Therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions.

Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy

A popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behaviour therapy (changing behaviour).

Family Therapy

Therapy that treats the family as a system. Views individual's unwanted behaviours as influenced by, or directed at, other family members.

Regression Toward the Mean

The tendency for extremes of unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average.

Meta-Analysis

A procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies.

Evidence-Based Practice

Clinical decision-making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences.

Biomedical Therapy

Prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system.

Psychopharmacology

The study of the effects of drugs on mind and behaviour.

Antipsychotic Drugs

Drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder.

Tardive Dyskinesia

Involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxin side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target certain dopamine receptors.

Antianxiety Drugs

Drugs used to control anxiety and agitation.

Antidepressant Drugs

Drug used to treat depression; also increasingly prescribed for anxiety. Different types of work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters.

Electroconvulsive Therapy

A biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

The application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity.

Psychosurgery

Surgery that removes or destroy brain tissue in an effort to change behaviour.

Lobotomy

A now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain.

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