Oceanography Exam#2

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What offsets the mid-Atlantic ridge's movement at fairly regular intervals?

Transform faults

Which is not a major factor in the width of a continental shelf?

The number of rivers depositing new sediments

What specifically connects the continental shelves to the deep-ocean floor?

Continental slope

Where are abyssal plains most common?

Atlantic Ocean

What is a characteristic of the water that is expelled from hyrdothermal vents?

The water is enriched with metals.

What is the structure of carbon dioxide an example of?

A compound

What type of bathymetric feature was heavily influenced by wave action at some point in its history?

Guyot

Why is the sofar layer efficient for sound travel?

Refraction causes the sound energy to remain within the layer.

____ are likely to be found in subduction zones.

Trenches

What is the name for a zone that decreases in temperature with depth?

Thermocline

Which is not a common particle size for most marine sediments?

Pebbles

What is a characteristic of transform faults?

All of these choices are true.

What explains why the ocean's sedimentary "memory" or record does not start with the ocean's formation?

Ocean sediment records are destroyed by subduction.

What is the average length of time an atom spends in the ocean?

Residence time

What is not a general characteristic of an active margin?

A broad shelf

What is the calcium carbonate compensation depth?

The depth at which calcium carbonate starts to dissolve.

What valuable commodity has yet to be commercially mined from ocean sediments?

Manganese nodules

Which sediment is categorized under cosmogenous sediments?

Microtektites

What vessel made the first continuous profile across the ocean?

USS Stewart

What partly explains the seabed topography we observe?

The jostling due to place tectonics.

What process explains how hydrothermal vents are created?

Convection

What affects the residence time of an element?

Its chemical activity in water

What was not a factor in making the mapping of the Earth's ocean more difficult?

The gravitational pull of underwater features

What is the source of most of the dissolved materials found in the ocean?

Dissolving and weathering of crustal rocks

Which item is not considered to have a basic pH?

Black coffee

What is a solute?

A substance that dissolves into another substance

Why is ice effective at cooling drinks?

The latent heat of fusion

The submerged outer edge of a continent is called:

a continental margin

What is a shadow zone?

A zone where the divergence of sound waves creates a region that has little sound energy penetration.

What is a Pacific-type margin referring to?

Active margin

Which essential gas is often in an unusable form in the ocean and atmosphere?

Nitrogen

What is the flatness of abyssal plains associated with?

The large amounts of sediment

The sediments that occur on the slope, rise, and deep ocean floor and originate in the ocean are called:

pelagic sediments

Why is the amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in seawater much less than the theoretical maximum saturation level?

Carbon dioxide is quickly used by photosynthetic organisms.

What type of margin is generally steep?

Active margin

What type of water mass dissolves the most amounts of gases?

Polar water masses

What is not thought to have an effect on the formation of submarine canyons?

Geothermal heating

What is the difference between adhesion and cohesion?

Adhesion is the tendency of water molecules to stick to solids while cohesion is the property that allows water molecules to stick to each other

What allows water to be a polar molecule?

The angular shape of the molecule

What organism is likely to be found in siliceous ooze?

Radiolarian

What is true of heat capacity?

It is the measure of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram by 1° Celsius.

What is thermal inertia?

The propensity for a substance to resist temperature changes

Why are some tropical waters unable to sustain life?

There is a low level of dissolved oxygen due to temperature.

Which does not have an effect on water's density?

Viscosity

What is the average pH of the ocean?

8.0

____ connect(s) atoms by sharing the energy of paired electrons.

Covalent bonds

Which water mass is characterized by increasing density with deeper depths?

Pycnocline zone

Where does most of the material on the continental shelf come from?

Erosion from the adjacent continent

What was the primary way sediment was transported to North America (east coast) continental margin during the last ice age?

Rivers carry the sediment right to the shelf edge.

What does carbon dioxide break down into once it is in the ocean?

All of these choices

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