Excretory System

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chapter 36 sect 3

excretory system

The function of the ______ is to excrete, or remove waste from the body.

lungs

When the body uses food for energy, carbon dioxide, water, and heat are produced as waste products. Carbon dioxide and water are given off when you exhale from the ______.

skin

Heat is given off through the largest organ of the body, the ________

kidneys

As the body breaks down extra proteins, it forms a waste called urea. Salt is also given off as a waste product. Small amounts of urea and salt are released from the skin when you sweat, but most of it is released from the main organs of excretion in the body, the _______.

urine

The two kidneys are at the back of the body, just above the hips. They form a liquid called ____,which is made up of wastes and water. THE LIQUID EXCRETED BY THE KIDNEYS, STORED IN THE BLADDER, AND PASSED THROUGH THE URETHRA TO THE OUTSIDE OF THE BODY.

nephrons

Each kidney contains millions of tiny tubes called _____ which have capillaries wrapped around them. These tiny tubes filter and cleanse the blood and balance the supply of water and salt in the body. THE FUNCTIONAL UNIT OF THE KIDNEY.

ureter

Water from the blood goes into the nephrons along with urea, salt, and wastes. Urine forms from these waste products inside of the nephrons and then flows to a collecting area in the kidney. The urine leaves each kidney through a tube called the ____.

bladder

After leaving the kidney through the ureters, the urine is collected in a sac-like organ called the ____where it is stored until it is ready to be released from the body.

urethra

When urine is released from the body, it passes from the bladder through another tube called the , _______which carries it out of the body.

excretion

The process of eliminating metabolic wastes.

Urea

the principal nitogenous product of the metabolism of proteins that forms n the liver from amino acids and from compounds of ammonia and that is found in urine and other body fluids.

Osmotic and pH balance

By removing wastes and toxic chemicals, excretion enables the body to maintain its ______ and ____ _____

2.4 L (2.5 qt)

A healthy person should drink at least _______ of water every day to replace the water lost through excretion.

wastes

The kidneys filter _____ out of the blood and balance levels of molecules.

pair of fist-sized

The kidneys are a ____ ___ ___ ____, beanshapped, reddish brown organs that are located in the lower back.

glomerulus

An arteriole enters this capsule and splits into a bed of capillaries called ______.

filtrate

This fluid, called _____, is composed of water, salt, glucose, amino acids, and urea.

Metabolic wastes

_____ _______ are removed from the body through the formation and excretion of urine.

0.6 L (0.63 qt)

The average bladder can hold up to about _________ of urine.

1.5 L (1.6 qt) to 2.3 L (2.3 qt)

A healthy adult eliminates from about ________ to ________ of urine a day, depending on the volume of fluids consumed.

kidney failure

The most common causes of _____ _____ are infection, diabetes, high blood pressure, and damage to the kidneys by the body's own immune system.

homeostasis

Kidneys are vital to maintaining ______, so damage to the kidneys may eventually become life threatening.

Kidney dialysis

_____ ______ is a procedure that uses a machine to filter the blood.

permanent

Dialysis is not a ____ solution to kidney failure.

kidney transplant

A more permanent solution to kidney failure is a ____ _____ from a healthy donor.

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