← 1814-1914 Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Richard Arkwright English inventor during the Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that could spin several threads at once. James Watt Engineer during the industrial revolution who invented the steam engine. It was widely used in many industries and made them much more efficient. Congress of Vienna conference held in 1815 among European diplomats in order to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon. Talleyrand French representative at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, who said that the only way to have peace in Europe is to have a king. He argued for the celebration of kings. Metternich Austrian representative at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 who wanted to promote peace, conservatism, and the repression of libaral nationalism throughout Europe. Had a great fear of Nationalism and republicanism Quadruple Alliance An alliance between Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia created after the Napoleonic era in order to preserve peace, and prevent war, throughout Europe. Decembrist Revolt Uprising of Russian soldiers in December 1825. Soldiers demanded a Constitutional monarchy and an end to serfdom. They were put down very quickly and did not bring any change, but it is important because it was the first revolutionary event in modern Russian history. February Days The working and middle-classes of France joined together to riot in February 1848. They were trying to overthrow the conservative regime which led to the creating of a new constitution. June Days Revolt of the French working class in june 1848. They were upset because of inequalities in the constitution created during the Feb. Days revolt. This opened the door for reform. Otto von Bismarck Prussian statesman who was the leader of German unification in the late nineteenth century. Zollverein Prussian union that removed tariff barriers between German states in the late nineteenth century. This was the first step toward political unity in Germany. Frankfurt Parliament Middle-class parliament that attempted to unify and reform the German states in 1848. They focused on liberal and democratic principles. Junker Strongly conservative members of Prussia's wealthy, land owning aristocracy Seven Weeks War War fought in 1866 between Austria and Prussia. Ended with a hugh prussian victory which showed that prussia was the new military power in Europe Franco-Prussian War War fought in 1870 between France and Prussia. The prussians overwhelmed the french and devistated them. This again showed the military power of Prussia. Charles Darwin English scientist who created the theory of evolution by natural selection in the nineteenth century. Natural Selection a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment. Theory created by Charles Darwin Social Darwinism The application of Darwin's ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies in the nineteenth century. Herbert Spencer Most well known social darwinist of the nineteenth century. Advocated competition and human progress. Imperialism The dividing up of the world by a very small group of powers. This allowed Europeans to divert their problems to other lands rather than fight on European soil. Entente Cordiale The series of agreements between France and Britian in 1904 that led to their alliance against Germany in World War I. Gustave le Bon Nineteenth century thinker who studied crowd behavior. He said that an isolated man may be peaceful, but in a crowd, transforms into a monster. Schlieffen Plan German effort to avoid a two front war during WWI. The plan was for Austria to hold off the Russian army while the Germans defeated France and then they would turn their full attention to Russia. Passchendaele British military campaign against Germany in 1917. Hundreds of thousands of troops were killed on the western front and in the end there was no territorial gain on either side. This battle represented the horror of industrial warfare. Verdun Bloody battle fought between germany and france in the city of verdun during WWI. Hundreds of thousand were killed for nothing because the battle ended in a stalemate. Lusitania British boat that was sunk by german submarines during WWI. There were over 100 American on board who were killed. This led to the american entry into the war. Pogroms Government supported attacks against Jews in Russia throughout the nineteenth century. They did this in order to shift resentment away from the government and toward another group. Narodniki A radical group of people in the nineteenth who believed the change would come to Russian through its citizens. Alexander Herzen British thinker who lead the Narodniki movement in Russia in the nineteenth century. He believed that peasants should initiate the reform but they were to afraid and Narodniki failed. Nihilism The complete denial of all established authority in Russia in the nineteenth century. A group of radical following this belief assassinated tzar Alexander II in 1881. Bolshevik a Russian socialist party led by Lenin in the nineteenth century that eventually became the Russian communist party. They believed in very strict militant rule. Menshevik "Softer" faction of the socialist party in Russia in the nineteenth century. They believed in working together with any political party working toward change.