Psyc Test 3

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100 terms

Requires some relative permanent change

Any situation that involves learning

A white rat

Watson and Raynor used _____ as a CS in order to condition fear in little Albert

Unconditioned reflex

Pavlov's dog salivated each time food was presented. Salivation in this situation is the ______

The bell had become associated with food

Pavlov's dog salivated to the sound of a bell because _____

Work hard all week

According to Tolman's views on purposefully learning. _______

Tolman

Who introduced the concept of cognitive maps to psychology?

True

Cultural variations exist in the occurrence and amount of dental fears in children.

Unconditioned stimulus/ unconditioned response

In classical conditioning situations, the _____ connection is innate but the ____ connection is learned.

Continuous

Carol give her dog cutie pie a treat each time cutie pie sits on command. Carol is using a _____ schedule to train her dog to sit on command

Change

The behavioral approach to learning defines learning in terms of ______.

Unconditioned stimulus

Pavlov's dog automatically salivated to food because food is an innate ______.

Sneezing in response to sniffing pepper

An example of an innate stimulus - response connection is ______.

False

Pavlov's dog salivates each time he hears a bell. Now however after several trials of salivating to the bell and NOT receiving any food, the dog stops salivating. What happened?

Loud noise

In the experiment with little Albert conducted by Watson and Raynor, the baby was conditioned to fear a white rat. In this study, the UCS was _____.

Watson/Jones

_____ is associated with conditioning fear in a baby, whereas ______ is associated with counter conditioning fear in a three year old little boy.

Behavior is the response of the conditioned stimulus.

In operant conditioning, ______.

Trial and error

Thorndike's law of effect is the basis of S-R theory. In other words, learning is a function of the consequences of _______.

Operant conditioning techniques should be used instead of politics

Skinner's position of the existence of free will in humans means that ______.

For behavioral control

Skinner maintained that his research with pigeons demonstrated that usefulness of operant conditioning techniques _______.

Secondary reinforces are more likely to be more effective in humans than animals

Although behaviorists maintain that the principles of learning are the same for all the species, ______.

Replication

Which of the following is NOT one of the processes involved in observational learning?

Rescola

The contemporary view that classical conditioning is primarily a matter of seeking useful information about perceptual representations in the environment is associated with _______.

Entity/incremental

Your textbook describes a study in which students have two different perspectives on intelligence... _____... group had an ______ view of intelligence.

They will exhibit learned helplessness in academic challenging situations

Mary is a teacher in an inner city school that is considered "at-risk" because of low student achievement sources..... What can Mary expect fro the students with this mindset?

True

The link between spanking and child behavioral problems is reduced when parents show how strong emotional support of the child.

False

Short- term memory is the same as working memory

False

Unlike the short-term memory system, Baddeley's working memory system has unlimited capacity.

Sensory, short term, long term

According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin theory of memory, memory storage involves which of the following 3 systems?

sensory memory

You tell your friends about the great time you had at a famous vacation amusement park. Most of the information is stored in

Memory span

George Miller's classic paper on the "magical" seven plus or minus two phenomenon refers to a person's ______.

Elaborate encoding of information

Chunking involves _______.

Memory span

After hearing a friend's telephone number for the first time, you are able to recite back to her all seven digits in perfect order. This feat is made possible by your _______.

Chunking

When asked to memorize the 15 letters CIACBSABCFBIIRS, Mary reorganizes them into CIA CBS ABC FBI IRS. Mary used the tactic of _______.

Passive/active

Short-term memory is _____ whereas working memory is ______.

You would live in the perpetual present

What would happen if you lost the ability to form new memories and could only remember the past few mins of your life?

Episodic memory

You are relaxing beside a water display in the park. The quiet scenic environment reminds you of a poem you read in English class last week. This is an example of ________.

Have a script for what happens in a restaurant

Although you have never been to the Fancy Foods Restaurant in your town, you weren't at all surprised when the hostess seats you, hands you the menu, and informs you that your server will soon be there to take your dinner order. Shortly after..... You knew exactly what was going to happen because you ______.

Large knowledge structure

According to the schema theory of memory, memories are _______.

P 301

Margaret fell down her basement stairs and suffered serious injury to her amygdala. What memory problems is she most likely to have now?

Is better at recognition than recall

Samantha prides herself in "never forgetting a face," although she frequently cannot put the correct name with a specific "face." According to your textbook, Samantha is really saying that she _______.

Flashbulb

On the ride home from her senior prom, Mary's date ran a red light and crashed into another vehicle... According to information presented in your textbook, Mary's memory of the accident _______.

You warn Sheila that accuracy of memory brought back from hypnosis is usually suspect.

Your friend, Sheila, confides in you hat she had recently remembered that her father had sexually molested her when she was a small child... From the information presented in the Critical Controversy section of the memory chapter, what advice do you give Sheila?

retrospec

According to your textbook, older adults perform as well as younger adults ______.

Information is accurate

In the systematic application of information from the science of memory to improving your study skills, the first step is to make sure _____.

Engage in the most challenging cognitive exercises you can

Both of Suzie's parents suffered from Alzheimer's disease before they died. Although still in her early 40's, Suzie is very concerned about her own cognitive functioning. What advice can you give her based what you know about the science of memory?

False

The amazing ability of 59 year-old Akira Haraguchi to recite ofver 83,000 digits of pi made him famous, because people at his age normally cannot remember much

False

The quality of encoding will determine the quality of memory.

False

Your roommate argues that episodic and ......

False

Because memory formation is automatic process... the greatr that brain activation in the prefrontal.....

False

50. Unlike younger adult, older adults use only the left frontal lobe in memory retrieva

Radical departure from behaviorism

Cognitive Psychology was considered a "revolutionary" development in psychology because _______

telepathy

Cognitive psychology studies all of the following except _____.

Hardware/software

when using the computer as an analogy to explain the relationship between cognition and the brain, the brain is described as the computer's _____ cognition as its ______.

True

The prototype model is able to explain typicality effects of concept structure

Computer info is precoded and ambiguities and removed before processing... comparison of computer and brain is over simplification

Although used often, the comparison between the computer and human information processing is oversimplified. Why?

Developing new learning goals

Your roommate argues that computers can perform several complex tasks better and more accurately than humans. You counter her argument with the mention of _____.

The classical usually defines properties and prototype defines characteristics

Which of the following best describes the difference between the classical model of concepts and the prototype model?

Find and frame the the problem

Your textbook describes how Levi Hutchins, a young clockmaker, resolved to rise at 4 am every morning. This resolution to wake up before sunrise each morning motivated Hutchins to invent the alarm clock. The most likely first step in solving the problem of waking up early was for Hutchins to ______.

Humility

_____ is a characteristic of good problem solvers

convenience

When comparing algorithms and heuristics, what is the advantage of using heuristics for solving real-life problems?

Inductive reasoning

Bertha met two students from another school at a convention. She enjoyed their company a great deal and was very impressed with how nice they were. Bertha now believes that all of the students from that school must also be nice and is considering transferring there. Bertha is using _____.

Stretch their minds

Without critical-thinking skills, people are less likely to _____

Reliability

If items on an intelligence test can have more than one correct answer, the test will most likely lack ______.

Sensitivity to the values of others

Which of the following is least characteristic of a creative thinker?

infants increased brain function matched language acquisition

Neuroscience research has shown that _____

Argue that bilingual education programs are placing immigrant children at a disadvantage

Critics of bilingual education instruction ______.

Problem focus coping strategy

Jeanne is a fist semester freshman and is having difficulty her college algebra class. Jeanne has an academic scholarship... Jeanne is using a(n) _____ to deal with this problem.

false

Conventional intelligence tests assess divergent thinking

false

Creative people are eccentric and highly subjective

true

The heritability of intelligence increases from childhood to adulthood

true

IQ test scores are rapidly increasing world-wide

false

Humans are so pre-wired to acquire language can learn fffjakf;dkalj

true

Coping with stressful situations is a form of problem solving

false

Perceiving a stressor as a challenge to be overcome rather than as a threat .....

true

Optimistic people are likelier to attend to an dremember potentially threatening health-related information that pessimists are

Increased electric conductivity

The galvanic skin response involves ______

Homeostasis

After staying up all night to study for a math exam, you return to your dorm room after the test and sleep for 7 hours. Your sleeping behavior was regulated by the body's tendency to maintain _____.

Signals you stop eating

The hormone cholecystokinin (CCK)

Sasiated (full)

Leptin and Cholecystokinin (CCK) are similar in they are both ______.

70%

If you have two obese parents, your risk of being overweight is ________.

Set point

Though Nadine is not overweight she would like to be significantly thinner than she is. She successfully loses 15 lbs.... when she gains or loses weight so she will return to her ______.

It has the highest mortality rate of any psychological disorder

Paris things her best friend, Nicole, may be suffering from undiagnosed anorexia nervosa.... What is the most serious consequences or anorexia nervosa?

Temporal lobe

A male cat is trying to copulate with a desk. It most likely has damage to the ____.

Frequency is linked with acceptance

Ethan is 17 years old and his parents are concerned about the amount of sexually oriented videos, music and movies that he watches. They are concerned because research shows that _______.

Competence motivation

Lidia graduated from college then years ago and is considering a career chagen. She is eager to find a position that challenges her and allows her to grow as a person... Lidia's desire to explore and grow as a person reflects ______.

Intimacy motive

Many social "misfits" are described as being "loners." One can assume that these "loners" have NOT succeeded in fulfilling the ______.

Mary will have a greater sense of autonomy

Mary is in her fifties and Jill is 24 years old. They belong to the same gardening club and go out to lunch after their meeting. According to information discussed in your textbook which woman will feel more autonomous when tipping their server at the restaurant.

Lower self actualization and more physical illness

Don places a great deal of value on money, prestige and his physical appearance. According to your textbook, he is likely to experience _____ compared to someone who values the organismic needs

Creativity and critical thinking skills are being neglected

Critics of the No Child Left Behind evaluation regiment maintain that _____.

Reduced intrinsic motivation

Adding external rewards to a situation in which the person is already intrinsically motivated to perform usually results in _______.

We will not always be happy with the feedback we receive

Our daily moods give us feedback on the effectiveness of our self-regulation. This means that ______.

Focus on other activities

Research on delayed gratification indicates that the best way to resist temptation is to ______.

Environmental circumstances to which we attribute our arousal.

According to Schachter and Singer, the specific emotion we experience depends on the _______.

Greater achievement

Goals that are short-term, specific, challenging and leads to _______.

Sympathetic nervous system

The fight-or-flight response involves activation of ______.

True

Estimates of the degree with which heredity can explain obesity range from 25% to 70%.

True

Rates of bulimia nervosa appear to be on decline

True

Women set the upper limit of sexual activity and men set the lower limit.

True

Children sexual orientation is related to parenting style

True

the fight-or-flight response by sympathetic nervous system...

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