Requires some relative permanent change
Any situation that involves learning
A white rat
Watson and Raynor used _____ as a CS in order to condition fear in little Albert
Pavlov's dog salivated each time food was presented. Salivation in this situation is the ______
The bell had become associated with food
Pavlov's dog salivated to the sound of a bell because _____
Work hard all week
According to Tolman's views on purposefully learning. _______
Who introduced the concept of cognitive maps to psychology?
Cultural variations exist in the occurrence and amount of dental fears in children.
Unconditioned stimulus/ unconditioned response
In classical conditioning situations, the _____ connection is innate but the ____ connection is learned.
Carol give her dog cutie pie a treat each time cutie pie sits on command. Carol is using a _____ schedule to train her dog to sit on command
The behavioral approach to learning defines learning in terms of ______.
Pavlov's dog automatically salivated to food because food is an innate ______.
Sneezing in response to sniffing pepper
An example of an innate stimulus - response connection is ______.
Pavlov's dog salivates each time he hears a bell. Now however after several trials of salivating to the bell and NOT receiving any food, the dog stops salivating. What happened?
In the experiment with little Albert conducted by Watson and Raynor, the baby was conditioned to fear a white rat. In this study, the UCS was _____.
_____ is associated with conditioning fear in a baby, whereas ______ is associated with counter conditioning fear in a three year old little boy.
Behavior is the response of the conditioned stimulus.
In operant conditioning, ______.
Trial and error
Thorndike's law of effect is the basis of S-R theory. In other words, learning is a function of the consequences of _______.
Operant conditioning techniques should be used instead of politics
Skinner's position of the existence of free will in humans means that ______.
For behavioral control
Skinner maintained that his research with pigeons demonstrated that usefulness of operant conditioning techniques _______.
Secondary reinforces are more likely to be more effective in humans than animals
Although behaviorists maintain that the principles of learning are the same for all the species, ______.
Which of the following is NOT one of the processes involved in observational learning?
The contemporary view that classical conditioning is primarily a matter of seeking useful information about perceptual representations in the environment is associated with _______.
Your textbook describes a study in which students have two different perspectives on intelligence... _____... group had an ______ view of intelligence.
They will exhibit learned helplessness in academic challenging situations
Mary is a teacher in an inner city school that is considered "at-risk" because of low student achievement sources..... What can Mary expect fro the students with this mindset?
The link between spanking and child behavioral problems is reduced when parents show how strong emotional support of the child.
Short- term memory is the same as working memory
Unlike the short-term memory system, Baddeley's working memory system has unlimited capacity.
Sensory, short term, long term
According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin theory of memory, memory storage involves which of the following 3 systems?
You tell your friends about the great time you had at a famous vacation amusement park. Most of the information is stored in
George Miller's classic paper on the "magical" seven plus or minus two phenomenon refers to a person's ______.
Elaborate encoding of information
Chunking involves _______.
After hearing a friend's telephone number for the first time, you are able to recite back to her all seven digits in perfect order. This feat is made possible by your _______.
When asked to memorize the 15 letters CIACBSABCFBIIRS, Mary reorganizes them into CIA CBS ABC FBI IRS. Mary used the tactic of _______.
Short-term memory is _____ whereas working memory is ______.
You would live in the perpetual present
What would happen if you lost the ability to form new memories and could only remember the past few mins of your life?
You are relaxing beside a water display in the park. The quiet scenic environment reminds you of a poem you read in English class last week. This is an example of ________.
Have a script for what happens in a restaurant
Although you have never been to the Fancy Foods Restaurant in your town, you weren't at all surprised when the hostess seats you, hands you the menu, and informs you that your server will soon be there to take your dinner order. Shortly after..... You knew exactly what was going to happen because you ______.
Large knowledge structure
According to the schema theory of memory, memories are _______.
Margaret fell down her basement stairs and suffered serious injury to her amygdala. What memory problems is she most likely to have now?
Is better at recognition than recall
Samantha prides herself in "never forgetting a face," although she frequently cannot put the correct name with a specific "face." According to your textbook, Samantha is really saying that she _______.
On the ride home from her senior prom, Mary's date ran a red light and crashed into another vehicle... According to information presented in your textbook, Mary's memory of the accident _______.
You warn Sheila that accuracy of memory brought back from hypnosis is usually suspect.
Your friend, Sheila, confides in you hat she had recently remembered that her father had sexually molested her when she was a small child... From the information presented in the Critical Controversy section of the memory chapter, what advice do you give Sheila?
According to your textbook, older adults perform as well as younger adults ______.
Information is accurate
In the systematic application of information from the science of memory to improving your study skills, the first step is to make sure _____.
Engage in the most challenging cognitive exercises you can
Both of Suzie's parents suffered from Alzheimer's disease before they died. Although still in her early 40's, Suzie is very concerned about her own cognitive functioning. What advice can you give her based what you know about the science of memory?
The amazing ability of 59 year-old Akira Haraguchi to recite ofver 83,000 digits of pi made him famous, because people at his age normally cannot remember much
The quality of encoding will determine the quality of memory.
Your roommate argues that episodic and ......
Because memory formation is automatic process... the greatr that brain activation in the prefrontal.....
50. Unlike younger adult, older adults use only the left frontal lobe in memory retrieva
Radical departure from behaviorism
Cognitive Psychology was considered a "revolutionary" development in psychology because _______
Cognitive psychology studies all of the following except _____.
when using the computer as an analogy to explain the relationship between cognition and the brain, the brain is described as the computer's _____ cognition as its ______.
The prototype model is able to explain typicality effects of concept structure
Computer info is precoded and ambiguities and removed before processing... comparison of computer and brain is over simplification
Although used often, the comparison between the computer and human information processing is oversimplified. Why?
Developing new learning goals
Your roommate argues that computers can perform several complex tasks better and more accurately than humans. You counter her argument with the mention of _____.
The classical usually defines properties and prototype defines characteristics
Which of the following best describes the difference between the classical model of concepts and the prototype model?
Find and frame the the problem
Your textbook describes how Levi Hutchins, a young clockmaker, resolved to rise at 4 am every morning. This resolution to wake up before sunrise each morning motivated Hutchins to invent the alarm clock. The most likely first step in solving the problem of waking up early was for Hutchins to ______.
_____ is a characteristic of good problem solvers
When comparing algorithms and heuristics, what is the advantage of using heuristics for solving real-life problems?
Bertha met two students from another school at a convention. She enjoyed their company a great deal and was very impressed with how nice they were. Bertha now believes that all of the students from that school must also be nice and is considering transferring there. Bertha is using _____.
Stretch their minds
Without critical-thinking skills, people are less likely to _____
If items on an intelligence test can have more than one correct answer, the test will most likely lack ______.
Sensitivity to the values of others
Which of the following is least characteristic of a creative thinker?
infants increased brain function matched language acquisition
Neuroscience research has shown that _____
Argue that bilingual education programs are placing immigrant children at a disadvantage
Critics of bilingual education instruction ______.
Problem focus coping strategy
Jeanne is a fist semester freshman and is having difficulty her college algebra class. Jeanne has an academic scholarship... Jeanne is using a(n) _____ to deal with this problem.
Conventional intelligence tests assess divergent thinking
Creative people are eccentric and highly subjective
The heritability of intelligence increases from childhood to adulthood
IQ test scores are rapidly increasing world-wide
Humans are so pre-wired to acquire language can learn fffjakf;dkalj
Coping with stressful situations is a form of problem solving
Perceiving a stressor as a challenge to be overcome rather than as a threat .....
Optimistic people are likelier to attend to an dremember potentially threatening health-related information that pessimists are
Increased electric conductivity
The galvanic skin response involves ______
After staying up all night to study for a math exam, you return to your dorm room after the test and sleep for 7 hours. Your sleeping behavior was regulated by the body's tendency to maintain _____.
Signals you stop eating
The hormone cholecystokinin (CCK)
Leptin and Cholecystokinin (CCK) are similar in they are both ______.
If you have two obese parents, your risk of being overweight is ________.
Though Nadine is not overweight she would like to be significantly thinner than she is. She successfully loses 15 lbs.... when she gains or loses weight so she will return to her ______.
It has the highest mortality rate of any psychological disorder
Paris things her best friend, Nicole, may be suffering from undiagnosed anorexia nervosa.... What is the most serious consequences or anorexia nervosa?
A male cat is trying to copulate with a desk. It most likely has damage to the ____.
Frequency is linked with acceptance
Ethan is 17 years old and his parents are concerned about the amount of sexually oriented videos, music and movies that he watches. They are concerned because research shows that _______.
Lidia graduated from college then years ago and is considering a career chagen. She is eager to find a position that challenges her and allows her to grow as a person... Lidia's desire to explore and grow as a person reflects ______.
Many social "misfits" are described as being "loners." One can assume that these "loners" have NOT succeeded in fulfilling the ______.
Mary will have a greater sense of autonomy
Mary is in her fifties and Jill is 24 years old. They belong to the same gardening club and go out to lunch after their meeting. According to information discussed in your textbook which woman will feel more autonomous when tipping their server at the restaurant.
Lower self actualization and more physical illness
Don places a great deal of value on money, prestige and his physical appearance. According to your textbook, he is likely to experience _____ compared to someone who values the organismic needs
Creativity and critical thinking skills are being neglected
Critics of the No Child Left Behind evaluation regiment maintain that _____.
Reduced intrinsic motivation
Adding external rewards to a situation in which the person is already intrinsically motivated to perform usually results in _______.
We will not always be happy with the feedback we receive
Our daily moods give us feedback on the effectiveness of our self-regulation. This means that ______.
Focus on other activities
Research on delayed gratification indicates that the best way to resist temptation is to ______.
Environmental circumstances to which we attribute our arousal.
According to Schachter and Singer, the specific emotion we experience depends on the _______.
Goals that are short-term, specific, challenging and leads to _______.
Sympathetic nervous system
The fight-or-flight response involves activation of ______.
Estimates of the degree with which heredity can explain obesity range from 25% to 70%.
Rates of bulimia nervosa appear to be on decline
Women set the upper limit of sexual activity and men set the lower limit.
Children sexual orientation is related to parenting style
the fight-or-flight response by sympathetic nervous system...