BIOL 1103, Exam #4

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Biotechnology

The use of technology to control biological processes as a means of meeting societal needs.

Blastocyst

- Hollow, fluid-filled ball of cells that is formed in the early stages of the embryonic development of humans and other mammals.

- In non-mammalian animals, the blastocyst is known as the blastula.

Clone

An exact genetic copy; a single gene or a whole, complex organism can be cloned.

Cloning Vector

A self-replicating agent that, in the cloning process, serves to transfer genetic material. (Bacterial plasmids, and viruses.)

Embryonic Stem Cell

A cell from the blastocyst stage of a human embryo that is capable of giving rise to all the types of cells in the adult body.

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPS cell)

A cell that has been induced to a state of pluripotency through the introduction of genes from outside its genome.

In humans, a pluripotent cell is a cell that can give rise to all the types of cells found in the body.

Plasmid

A ring of DNA that lies outside the chromosome in bacteria, Plasmids can move into bacterial cells in the process called transformation, thus making them a valuable tool in biotechnology.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

A technique for generating many copies of a DNA sequence from a small starting sample.

Recombinant DNA

Two or more segments of DNA that have been combined by humans into a sequence that does not exist in nature,

Reproductive Cloning

Cloning intended to produce adult mammals o a defined genotype.

Restriction Enzyme

A type of enzyme, occurring naturally in bacteria, that recognizes a specific sequence of DNA bases and cuts DNA strands at a specific location within the sequence.

Restriction enzymes are used in biotechnology to cut DNA in specific places.

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT)

A means of cloning animals through fusion of one somatic cell (non-sex cell) with an egg cell whose nucleus has been removed.

Stem Cell

Can be defined as any cell that can give rise to more cells of its kind, along with at least on variety of specialized cell.

Transformation

A cell's incorporation of genetic material from outside its boundary. Some bacteria readily undergo this process, and other can be induced for use s in biotechnology.

Transgenic Organism

An organism whose genome has stably incorporated one or more genes from another species.

How is biotechnology defined?

The use of technoloy to control biological processes as a means of meeting societal needs.

Researchers who work with DNA are able to cut it into desired lengths through the use of:

Restriction enzymes.

In transgenic biotechnology involving bacteria, which sequence of events would be followed in the process of harvesting a protein of interest?

Isolate gene that codes for protein; splice gene into plasmids, transform plasmids into bacteria; replicate host bacterial cells; harvest protein of interest.

Which of the following is an example of a transgenic organism?

E. Coli bacterium with a human gene inserted; rice with bacterium and daffodil genes inserted.

What is a clone?

An exact copy of a gene or an entire living thing.

Dolly the sheep was cloned by means of:

Taking a cell from an adult sheep and fusing it with a sheep eff that had its DNA removed.

As a means of producing large quantities of cells needed for the regeneration of human tissues, medical scientists are utilizing:

Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells.

Criminal investigators who want to make copies of a DNA sample from a crime do so through:

The polymerase chain reaction.

Common Descent with Modification

The process by which species of living things undergo modification in successive generations with such modification sometimes resulting in the formation of new, separate species.

Homologous

In anatomy, having the same structure owing to inheritance from a common ancestor. Forelimb structures in whales, bats, cats, and gorillas are homologous.

Modern Synthesis

The unified evolutionary theory that resulted from the convergence of several lines of biological research between 1937 and 1950.

Morphology

The physical form of an organism.

Natural Selection

The process through which traits that confer a reproductive advantage to individual organisms grow more common in populations of organisms over successive generations.

Radiometric Dating

A technique for determining the age of objects by measuring the decay of the radioactive elements within them. The age of fossils an be determined with this technique.

Vestigial Character

A structure in an organisms who original function has been loss during the course of evolution.

In science, a theory is:

A general set of principles, supported by evidence, that explains some aspect of the natural world.

Which of the following are central ideas in the theory of evolution by natural selection?

-Organisms vary in traits that affect their reproduction.
-Descent with modification occurs over generations.
-Traits that confer a reproductive advantage will become more common in populations over time.

Which of the following observations provide evidence for evolution? (List all that apply.)

-Monkey and trilobite fossils are never found in the same fossil beds.
-DNA sequences of genes shared by various species vary in accordance with predictions about how closely related those species are.
-The genetic code is nearly universal.
-Species whose adult forms look very different may have similar features in embryonic life.

What did Lyell figure out?

Geological forces observable today caused changes in Earth.

What did Wallace figure out?

Natural selection as a mechanism underlying evolution.

What did Lamarck figure out?

One form of organism can evolve into another.

What did Cuvier figure out?

Evidence of extinction of species.

What are some homologous structure? Which do not belong?

Are HOMOLOGOUS:
- Whale flipper, Bat wing, Cat forelimb

DO NOT Belong:
- Insect leg, Octopus tentacles.

Discoveries in the field of ___________ provided key evidence needed for natural selection to be widely accepted as the mechanism of evolution.

Genetics.

Important implications of the theory of evolution by natural selection include:

- All organisms, including humans, are descended from a common ancestor.
- The biological world is constantly evolving.
- Traits found in organisms are the outcomes of a goal-less process.
- Species whose adult forms look very different may have similar features in embryonic life.

John Endler performed an experiment involving guppies in which he demonstrated evolution driven by natural selection that worked through a predator-prey relationship. Which of the following are true statements about the results of his experiments?

- Males with longer tails and brighter coloration were more frequently eaten by predator fish.
- When males were put in a predator-free environment, brighter coloration and larger tails evolved in them.
- When predators were reintroduced duller coloration and smaller tails evolved in the males.

Acrosome

A structure located on the front end of a vertebrate sperm cell; contains enzymes that help the sperm penetrate the accessory cells surrounding the oocyte.

Amniotic Fluid

A protective and nutritive fluid that surrounds the fetus of mammals, including filling the lungs.

Cervix

The lower part of the uterus, a narrow neck that opens into the vagina.

Corpus Luteum

The structure that develops in the mammalian ovary from the ruptured tertiary follicle following ovulation.

The corpus luteum secretes hormones that help prepare the reproductive tract for pregnancy.

Ectopic Pregnancy

An abnormal pregnancy in which the blastocyst has attached to a location other than the uterine wall.

Embryo

A developing organisms.

In humans, the developing organism from the time a zygote undergoes its first division through the end of the the eighth week of development.

Endometrium

The tissue lining the interior of the uterus in mammals, which thickens in response to hormonal secretion during ovulation and is shed during menstruation.

If pregnancy occurs, this tissue initially houses the embryo.

Epididymis

A collection of tubules near the testis in which sperm complete their development and are stored.

Estrogen

A class of hormones, produced primary by cells of the ovary, that supports egg development, growth of uterine lining, and development of female sex characteristics.

Fetus

In humans, the developing organism the start of the ninth week of development of the moment of birth.

Follicle

In the vertebrate ovary, the complex of the oocyte (developing egg) and the cells and fluids that surround and nourish it.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

A hormone, secreted by the anterior pituitary, that promotes egg development and stimulates secretion of estrogens in women and supports sperm production and testosterone secretion in men.

Fraternal Twin

Twins who are produced first, through multiple ovulations in the mother, followed by multiple fertilizations from separate sperm of the father, and then multiple implantations of the resulting embryos in the uterus.

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone

A hormone released in tiny amounts from the brain's hypothalamus that stimulates the anterior pituitary to release two other hormones important in reproduction.

Identical Twin

Twins who develop from a single zygote; strictly speaking, identical twins are a single organism at one point in their development and as such have exactly the same genetic makeup.

Inner Cell Mass

In mammalian development, the group of cells in the embryo that will develop into the baby rather than into the placenta.

Labor

The regular contractions of the uterine muscles that sweep over the fetus, creating pressure that opes the cervix and expels the baby and the placenta.

Luteinizing Hormone

A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary; in women, LH induces ovulation and stimulates the ovary to secrete estrogens and progestins to prepare the body for possible pregnancy. In men, LH stimulates the tests to produce andgrogens such as testosterone.

Menopause

The cessation of the monthly ovarian cycle that occurs when women reach about fifty years of age.

Menstruation

The cynical release of blood and the specialized uterine lining, the endometrium; occurs about once every 28 days in human females, expect when the oocyte is fertilized.

Oocyte

The precursor cell of eggs in the vertebrate ovary. Diploid primary oocytes develop from oogonia and in turn give rise to haploid secondary oocytes in the process of meiosis.

Ovarian Follicle

In human reproduction in females, the complex of an oocyte (developing, unfertilized egg) and its accessory cells and fluids.

Ovulation

The release of an oocyte from the ovary in animals.

Placenta

A complex network of maternal and embryonic blood vessels and membranes that develops in mammals in pregnancy.

The placenta allows nutrients and oxygen to flow to the embryo from the mother, while allowing carbon dioxide and waste to flow from the embryo to the mother.

Prostate Gland

In human males, a gland surrounding the urethra near the urinary bladder that contributes fluids to the semen.

Semen

The mixture of sperm and glandular secretions that is ejaculated from the human male through the urethra.

Seminiferous Tubules

A convoluted tubule inside the testes where sperm development begins.

Immature sperm are eventually released into the interior cavity of a tubule and travel to the epididymis, where sperm maturation is completed.

Spermatocyte

An immature sperm cell.

Spermatocytes develop from spermatogonia and develop into spermatids, which eventually develop into mature sperm.

Spermatogonia

Diploid cells that are the starting cells in sperm production in males.

Spermatogonia are reproductive stem cell in that, when dividing, each of them produces one primary spermatocyte (which will develop into four mature sperm cells) and one spermatogonium.

Testis

The organ in the male reproductive system in which sperm begin development and testosterone is produced.

Trimester

A period lasting about three months during a human pregnancy. There are three trimesters during the 9-month pregnancy.

Trophoblast

The cells at the periphery of the developing mammalian embryo that establish physical links with the mother's uterine wall and eventually develop into the fetal portion of the placenta.

Umbilical Cord

In human pregnancy, the tissue linking the fetus with the placenta.

Urethra

Tube in which urine flows from the bladder to the outside of the body in both males and females. In males, the urethra also transmits semen.

Uterine Tube

In human females, the tube that transports an ovulated developing egg (an oocyte) from the ovary to the uterus, during which time fertilization may occur. [Also called the fallopian tube.]

Vas Deferens

In human males, the tube that carries the sperm from the epididymis to the urethra for ejaculation.

Zygote

A fertilized egg. In humans, the developing organism from the time of fertilization through the time of the first cell division (about 30 hours after fertilization.)

The precursors of the eggs produced by females are:

- Released from ovaries.
- Called oocytes.
- Surrounded by fluids and accessory cells.

The structure in which sperm are stored and complete their maturation is the:

Epididymis.

The tertiary follicle:

- Contains a maturing oocyte.
- Is transformed into the corpus luteum.
- Expels an oocyte in ovulation.

The natural degeneration of follicles during a woman's lifetime is referred to as:

Atresia.

The portion of the blastocyst called the trophoblast eventually helps form the:

Placenta.

Birth of identical twins results from unusual evens during:

Early cell division after fertilization.

Arrange the following events in their proper sequence:

- Assumption of fetal head-down position.
- Uterine muscle contractions.
- Dilation of cervix.
- Birth of baby.
- Expulsion of placenta.

Sperm development begins in the:

Seminiferous Tubules

Spermatids are produced by:

Secondary Spermotocytes

Which structure would be best described as helping to prepare the female tract for pregnancy and maintain the endometrium during the early phases of pregnancy?

Corpus Luteum

Which of the following is the most effective method of contraception?

Birth control implant

Which of the following is a structure in which sperm mature and are stored?

Epididymis

What changes occur in the endometrium as the time of possible fertilization approaches?

The endometrium enters the secretory phase; the endometrium enters the proliferative phase.

The stages of follicle development are:

Primary follicle, secondary follicle, tertiary follicle, and corpus luteum.

In correct chronological oder, the three phases of the uterine cycle are:

Menstrual --> Proliferative --> Secretory.

Which structure would be best described as helping to prepare the female tract for pregnancy and maintain it during the early phases of pregnancy?

Corpus Luteum.

Which structure gives rise a future baby?

Blastocyst

The surgical removal of the seminal vesicles would likely:

Cause sterility because sperm would not be able to exit the body.

The sequence of development of sperm is:

Spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid, sperm.

Which pair includes two contraceptive methods that are generally irreversible means to black gametes from moving to a site where fertilization can occur?

Vasectomy and tubal ligation.

A man has been experiencing reduced urine flow problems. After examination by his doctor, the diagnosis is an enlarged prostrate gland. What is the connection between prostate enlargement and reduced urine flow?

The prostate surround the urethra, the tube that transmits sperm and urine.

What information was determined about DNA based on Rosalind Franklin's data?

DNA has a double-helix structure.

Which of the following is not a component of DNA nucleotides?

Uracil

The two strands of a double helix of DNA are linked by what kind of bond?

Hydrogen bonds between bases.

The three components of a DNA nucleotide are:

Phosphates, sugars, and bases.

What level of protein structure does DNA code for?

Primary

Which of the following is associated with cDNA?

Reverse transcriptase; mRNA with introns removed (processed mRNA.)

Which statement is a characteristic of plasmids?

They can be used to create recombinant DNA.

Which choice is an example of a "recombinant DNA'?

A bacterial plasmid combined with a human gene.

Why are restriction enzymes that produce sticky ends valuable?

The ends produced will stick to any complementary DNA from any source.

Dolly, the cloned sheep, is the produced of which technique?

Reproductive cloning.

Which is an example of clones that already are produced by nature?

Identical twins.

Why is PCR useful?

It allows for making many copies of DNA when the starting sample is small.

You are a crime scene investigator, and the only evidence you are able to gather at the crime scene are some strands of hair. You want to see whether suspect in custody was at the crime scene. What technique would you use to try and connect the suspect to the crime scene?

PCR followed by analyzing small tandem repeats.

If you found the same number of short tandem repeats at three different locations in two samples of DNA, what would you conclude?

The two samples were most likely from the same individual.

Embryonic stem cells are to be pluripotent. This means they have the ability to:

Specialize into any other type of cell.

What principles lie at the core of evolutionary theory?

Natural selection and common descent with modifications.

Darwin and Wallace both realized that most species produce many more offspring than is necessary to maintain a constant population. What is the fate of the excess of individuals?

The more favorable forms survive and reproduce, but the others do not.

Pharyngeal slits are present in the embryos of organisms as diverse as fish, chickens, and humans. Why would organisms as different as these have similar embryonic structures?

The organisms shared a common ancestor whose embryos had pharyngeal.

The ultimate source of genetic differences among species is:

Mutation.

In a fossil bed, you discover the preserved bones of a winged animal mixed in with the hones of small rodents. The small rodents are known from other fossils to have lived about two million years ago, but they are now extinct.

After considerable effort, you are able to collect and analyze DNA from the winged animal. You obtain the nucleotide sequence of the cytochrome c oxidase gene. When you compare this sequence to the sequence of the same gene in a bat, a rodent, a shrew, and a human, you find the following numbers of differences:

winged animal-bat -- 11 differences
winged animal-rodent -- 14 differences
winged animal-shrew -- 15 differences
winged animal-human -- 9 differences

What hypothesis does this data support?

Of the mammals tested, the winged animal is probably most closely related to humans.

Animals use auricular muscles to swivel their ears to home in on sounds. Humans have auricular muscles, but we cannot turn out ears. So, why do humans have auricular muscles?

They are vestigial structures we inherited mammalian ancestors.

What is true about Charles Darwin?

-His voyage on the Beagle took nearly five years.
-Charles is buried in Westminister Abbey,
-Reverend John Henslow was Darwin's mentor at Cambridge.

How old is the Earth? When did life begin?

4.5 billion years ago; 3.6 billion years ago.

What kind of organism gave rise to whales?

Land mammal.

In science, a theory is:

An overarching principle supported by many lines of evidence.

Which of the following statements wild Lamarck agree with?

Giraffes got their long necks by stretching and passing this acquired characteristic to their offspring.

Which of the following is consistent with a modern understanding of evolution?

There is variation among individuals in a population.

Birds with extravagant plumage may be able to pass their genes to the next generation between than drab birds because:

They are more likely to attract a mate.

All of the following are forces that can change allele frequency on a population except:

Random mating.

If within a large population no mutations occur, no migration occurs, all matings are random, each individual has an equal; change of reproducing, which of the following will probably happen?

No evolution will occur.

Organisms that can interbreed with each other in nature but are genetically isolated from all other organisms are a:

Species.

A small population of deer is introduced to an island. All the males have 11 to 13 points on their antlers.

If after several generations most males have antlers with 20 points this development will have been the result of:

Directional Selection.

A population becomes isolated from other populations of the same species, and then genetic divergence occurs that prevents them from breeding with other populations. What has happened?

Speciation.

The Great Dane and Chihuahua are both domestic dogs, the same species. However, mating between them is limited by:

Mechanical incompatibility.

"Speciation may occur because of accumulation of many minor genetic changes in a population over time." This statement is best associated with:

Gradualism.

In a population with two alleles, A and A, the frequency of a is 0.6. What is the frequency of heteoozygotes if the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

0.48

A bottleneck may be dangerous to a population because:

Genetic variability is diminished.

Which of these definitions of species most closely fits the biological species concept?

Members of the same species can mate and produce fertile offspring.

Blue-footed boobies of the Galapagos will mate only after a very specific courtship display on the part of the male. He high-steps to advertise his bright blue feet. What isolating mechanism discourages mating outside the species?

Behavioral Isolation.

"Speciation can occur rapidly and is caused by a few genetic changes in important genes." This statement is best associated with:

Punctuated equilibrium.

Which of these is a correct order of taxonomic categories from less specific to more specific?

Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, and genus.

A common means of speciation in plants but not in animals is:

Polyploidy.

Which of the following possibilities is the best indicator of an organism's evolutionary fitness?

The number of offspring it produces over its lifetime that survive to breed.

An organelle that probably evolved from a prokaryotic organisms that moved inside began to live within a eukaryotic cell is:

A mitochondrion.

What is a chromosomal evidence that chimps and humans have a common ancestor?

Human chromosome #2 is the result of the fusion of two anscestor primate chromosomes.

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