Art History Mid Term

Created by cwalukevich16 

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Pre-Historic Art, Art of the Ancient Near East, Ancient Egyptian Art, Ancient Greek Art, Etruscan and Roman Art

Representational images began appearing in Australia, Africa and Europe beginning approximately how many years ago?

50,000 years ago

Explain how the animal paintings in the Lascaux cave paintings are depicted.

1. Depicted naturally
2. Appear singly, rows, face-to-face, on top of another.
3. Most characteristic features are emphasized.

How was the human imagination in cave painting and sculpting stimulated?

1. Used petrusions of cave to guide drawings.
2. Picture of sleeping bison would ensure the hunters found their prey asleep.
3. Assumed caves were used as places of worship.

What are some of the explanations for the painting of the bird faced man in the Lascaux Cave?

1. Depict the animals real, if the human was not depicted real and accidentally hit by a spear, he would not be killed. Avoid killing him in real life.. voodoo.
2. Could illustrate a story or myth regarding the death of a hero.
3. Could depict the vision/dream of a shaman.

What evidence exists that many Neolithic societies were stable and communal rather than nomadic?

1. Made permanent homes - Catal Huyuk
2. Had farms, farming vs. hunting.

What is the assumed date of the first construction phase of Stonehenge? How many building phases were there?

3000 BCE in the Neolithic Period. 8 phases.

Why is it significant that the transport of blustones to Stonehenge was more than 150 miles away?

Because is shows that the people who moved them, made and have a powerful connection with their homelands.

Provide three examples of how life change between the Paleolithic period and the Neolithic period?

1. Movement: Paleolithic people moved with herds because it was their food source, they had to, they were hunters. In the Neolithic period, the people made permanent homes, had farms and a sense of homeland.
2. Religion: Very apparent in Neolithic, they had priests, sacrifices, rituals, burial practices and graveyards. All that is known for religion in Paleolithic is that the role of Shaman MAY have existed.
3. Gender/Class Status: Paleolithic period, male/female bones buried together, there was a sense of equality. There was also no evident class status, people didn't "own" more than others. Neolithic, sometimes matriarchal sometimes patriarchal for gender. Nobility begins, there is a hoarding of food and a potential to become more wealthy.

Compare/contrast dwellings in Paleolithic and Neolithic art.

Paleolithic: some dwellings created using bones of woolly mammoth, tusks excellent roof supports. Centered around inside fire pit, or hearth, where food prepared, tools fashioned etc. Floors colored with powdered ocher in shades yellow, to brown, to red.
Neolithic: Some constructed from simple bricks made of clay, mud and straw, later made from stone-base. Architecture was dramatic and long-lasting, since repeated building of house upon house in different generations. Some burials have been found under the floors.

What does the change in dwelling styles tell us about the human relationship to nature during this time?

...

What possible functions have been suggested for pre-historic sculpture, male and female?

1. Fertility cults and matriarchal societies.
2. Toys, portraits and votives.
3. Mark emergence of human being as the core locations of human identity as opposed to animals.

What is the "land between the rivers"?

Mesopotamia, Tigris and Euphrates rivers, which always got invaded. Fertile, wide open land with no natural boundaries, made it a place of unrest.

What was art like in the Ancient Near East and what was it intended for?

More stylistic art and intended for palaces, rather than naturalistic and caves.

Name 3 "firsts" the Sumerians are credited with inventing.

1. Wagon wheel
2. Plow
3. Form of writing on clay tablets.

What did Sumerians use for identifying documents and establishing property ownership?

Hard, rock cylinder seals.

What did the Ziggurats function symbolically as? Who were they dedicated to?

Bridges between the earth and the heavens, a meeting place for humans and their gods. Proclaimed the wealth of a city's ruler and glorified its gods. Bright colors used such as red, yellow, blue, white and black.

What were the Sumerian votive figures dedicated to? Provide 2 characteristics.

Dedicated to the gods. Hands clasped in respect, bold glaring eyes, different sizes and materials to show hierarchy, women have veils, men have beards - sign of wisdom.

Mesopotamian sculptors told stories clearly and economically by organizing visual narratives in horizontal bands called...

Registers.

What theme does the inlaid images on the sound box of the Great Lyre with Bull's Head relate to?

Death...power. King put in his tomb, bring possessions in after life.

In the Stele of Naram-Sin, what artistic device is used to signal Naram-Sin's importance and reinforce his divine right to rule?

Hieratic scale, where he is larger than everyone else.

Which animals appears in Mesopotamian art as a symbol of power?

Bull.

How is Gudea generally portrayed and why is his face so familiar?

Gudea was the ruler of Lagash. Built and restored many temples and within them he placed votive statues representing himself as governor. Made of hard stone,diorite, possibly a desire for powerful, stylized images. Images present Gudea as strong, peaceful, pious ruler worthy of divine favor. Twenty have survived.

The Stele of Hammurabi is significant as both a work of art of ancient Mesopotamian art and as...

A historical document that records a conversation about justice between god and man. It is systematic codification of his people's rights, duties and punishments.

In the Stele of Hammurabi, Hammurabi stand in a gesture of... before the seated god Shamash.

Prayer.

What as the purpose of the Lamassu?

1. Located outside a gate where people would pass through once they were granted access. Colossal guardian figures that may be there to protect the king.
2. Ward off enemies that try to enter. Lamassu combines bearded head of man, powerful body of lion or bull, wings of eagle and headdress of a god. All present a message of power, strength and authority.

What does the relief sculpture of Assurnasirpal II Killing Lions probably depict?

A ceremonial hunt, where the king, protected my men with swords and shields, rode back and forth killing animals as they were released one by one into an enclosed area.

How does the relief carving of Assurbanipal and His Queen in the Garden reinforce the power of the King?

1. King and queen relaxing in pleasure garden while king reclines on couch and queen sits in chair at his feet.
2. Musician who plays music and three servants enter with trays of food.
3. King took off necklace and laid it near his weapons and across the room hanging on a tree like a trophy is the severed head of his vanquished enemy.

Known for his persecution of Jews, as recorded in the Hebrew Bible's Book of Daniel, what city was Nebuchadnezzar II responsible for transforming into one of the most splendid cities of its day?

Babylon.

What was the ceremonial entrance to the city of Babylon?

Ishtar Gate.

The relief of Darius and Xerxes Receiving Tribute exemplifies Persian art's emphasis on... As an example, the relief was finished in what materials?

Economic prosperity, money. Freshly painted in bright colors.

What ruler conquered the Persian Empire in 334 BCE?

Alexander the Great of Macedonia.

In Egypt, because the temple was the home of the god, originally, the temple had the form of...

A house.

The Great Hall at Karnak has massive ... capitals on the columns supporting the raised, center part of the roof.

Papyrus.

What object commemorate the unification of Egypt and signals the beginning of the dynastic period? What did that person do?

The Palette of Narmer. Narmer unifies upper Egypt (southern) and lower Egypt (northern).

Describe 3 visual characteristics of the Palette of Narmer and their significance.

1. Narmer's importance is shown by hieratic scale.
2. Figures are shown in composite poses so each part is portrayed from its most characteristic viewpoint.
3. King as bull and the 2 lions connecting represent the 2 kingdoms coming together.

After a king died, the body was embalmed and ferried across the Nile to where?

The Valley Temple.

What were the Great Pyramids at Giza originally faced with?

A veneer of polished limestone.

What was the most common tomb structure during the Early Dynastic Period and what did it look like?

Mastaba, a flat-topped, one story building with slanted walls erected above an underground burial chamber.

How do royal sculptures like Menkaure and a Queen contrast with that of less prominent people like the world called Seated Scribe?

Menkaure sculpture is described in ways like dignity, calm and permanence. Appear as separate figures, similar in size, block like to stay in tact and Ka can recognize them. Menkaure is walking ahead a little and appears athletic.
Seated Scribe is created more relaxed, more lifelike. Rounded head, alert expression. Sagging body that is flabby, different materials.

What did Amenhotep IV change his name to, to honor the life-giving sun deity?

Akhenaten.

What period did Amenhotep usher in that saw dramatic changes in the conventions used in royal art?

The Amarna Period.

What sculptor probably made the beautiful bust of Nefertiti as a model for sculptures or paintings of the queen?

Thutmose.

What pharaoh built temples out of the living rock at Abu Simbel?

Ramses II.

What colored paint was used for images of male figures, an Egyptian convention for distinguishing gender?

Reddish-brown. Women more with white, because they were inside a lot, men outside more.

How were the interiors of Egyptian tombs decorated?

They were decorated for the Ka to read. Tombs of wealthy families were often decorated with paintings and reliefs. Decoration had a religious meaning, also evoke the deceased's everyday life or depict ceremonial events that proclaim the deceased's importance.

How is domestic life in the Middle Kingdom represented in tomb art?

The images reveal everyday activities, tasks and scenes. Example is artwork titled Picking Figs where two men are harvesting figs and they are competing with three baboons.

Discuss the plan of the archeological site at Karnak, including the Great Hall. Include pylon, peristyle, hypostyle and clerestory.

...

How was Hatshepsut portrayed as a female Pharaoh?

There was no artistic formula for a female pharaoh in Egyptian art so she had to be portrayed in the her new role as a male "king". She was wearing a kilt and linen headdress and sometimes with a false beard.

Why do we believe that Nefertiti's beauty was NOT exaggerated in her portrait bust?

Because of the phrases used by her subjects when referring to her such as, "Beautiful of Face", "Mistress of Happiness", "Great of Love", or "Endowed with Favors." All of these tend to support the artist's vision.

How did Ramses building projects rival that of the Old Kingdom?

...

Greek artists' adherence to strict ideals of beauty and mathematical concepts parallels the Greek ... search for human values of truth, virtue and harmony.

Philosophers'

What are the clothed women in the form of columns called found on the Treasury of Siphnians?

Caryatids

In the Archaic period, what was the city that was the center for pottery manufacturing and trade?

Athens

Where was the Kritios Boy found?

On the Athenian Acropolis.

Who convinced the Greeks to rebuild the Acropolis following the 480 BCE defeat of the Persians by the Greeks?

Statesman Perikles of Argos.

Who developed The Canon in 450 BCE for constructing the ideal human figure?

Polykleitos

The Porch of the Maidens on the Erechtheion is supported by...

A high base where its six stately caryatids support simple Doric capitals and an Ionic entablature made up of bands of carved molding.

The Ionic temple on the Acropolis with a porch on each end is called the Temple of...

Athena Nike

Who was the teacher of Alexander the Great?

Philosopher Aristotle

What was Alexander the Great's most lasting legacy?

The spread of Greek culture beyond its original borders.

The sculpture of the Dying Gallic Trumpeter dates from what period?

Hellenistic period

Hagesandros, Polydoros and Athenedoros, who are thought to be the sculptors of Laocoon and His Sons are from what island?

Rhodes

The original location of the Nike of Samothrace was a hillside niche above the sanctuary of the Greek gods at...

Samothrace

The Aphrodite of Melos demonstrates the influence of what earlier style in Hellenistic sculpture?

Earlier Classical styles

What were the origins of the Etruscans?

...

What were Etruscan temples built on?

A raised podium or platform.

In what year did the Romans overtake the Etruscans, forming a republic centered in Rome?

509 BCE.

What is the legend of Romulus and Remus?

Romulus and Remus were twin sons the god Mars and a mortal woman. They were abandoned on the banks of the Tiber River and were discovered by a she-wolf. The she-wolf nursed them as her own pups and when they reached adulthood, the twins built a city near the place of their rescue.

In Virgil's Aeneid, the Roman people were the offspring of ..., the mortal son of Venus.

Aeneas

In the Initiation Rites of the Cult of Baachus at the Villa of the Mysteries, artists used what technique to make distant objects appear hazy and lighter in color?

Atmospheric perspective.

For what occasion was the Ara Pacis built?

Was dedicated in 9 BCE on the occasion of Augustus' triumphal return to the capital after three years spent establishing Roman rule in Gual and Hispania.

The Flavian Ampitheater was started under ... and completed under the ruler...

Vespasian and Titus.

What scenes are depicted on the Column of Trajan?

The scene on the bottom at the beginning shows Trajan's army crossing the Danube River on a pontoon bridge as the first Dacian campaign of 101 CE is launched. Soldiers are also visible constructing battlefield headquarters in Dacia from which the men on the frontiers will receive orders, food and weapons.

What architect described the accomplishments of the Roman builders in his Ten Books of Architecture?

Vitruvius

The Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius was mistakenly revered as a statue of who for many centuries?

Constantine

The Arch of Constantine commemorates Constantine's victory over whom?

Maxentius

What stylistic change in art followed Constantine's death in 337 CE?

...

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