Chapt. 13 Architecture

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A roof

symbolic of architecture, buildings.
Having "a roof over our heads" means security

The Shell System

the same material is used for structural support & sheathing (covering), such as brick, stone, adobe (mud bricks covered with a layer of mud) or log cabins.

The Skeleton-and-Skin System

like the human body - uses a strong material for support (in skyscrapers, steel) & lighter material to cover it (like glass or aluminum siding)

2 basic families of structural systems:

The Shell System & The Skeleton-and-Skin System

The structural systems must deal with:

Weight & Tensile Strength

Weight

each structural member must support weight (think of 4 people supporting a rigid body)

Tensile Strength

the ability of a material to span horizontal distances with minimum support from underneath

"Stacking and Piling"

Most of the weight is at the bottom - walls get thinner towards the top.
The structure tapers inward, or narrows, toward the top.
The openings (windows & doors) must be small & few. (The round arch & vault allow for bigger openings.)
The roof is lightweight, such as adobe, wood or thatch.

Load Bearing construction Architecture:

Great Friday Mosque, Djenne, Mali.Adobe.Rebuilt 1907 in original style

Post & Lintel Construction

At least two posts or columns (uprights pieces) support a lintel or beam (horizontal crosspiece).
Most common materials are stone or wood, but neither has great tensile strength, so a great many posts must be used.

Post & Lintel Construction Architecture:

(Temple of Amon-Mut-Khonsu,Luxor, Egypt.Stone. Begun c.1390 B.C.E.)
(Temple of Athena Nike. Marble. Acropolis, Athens,Greece.427-424 B.C.E.)

These elements were copied by Romans; known as Classical Architecture.
Greek Column Styles:

DORIC, IONIC & CORINTHIAN

Chinese & Japanese Architecture Characteristics:

China & Japan also use post & lintel construction, but in contrast with Greece & Rome, they use wood instead of stone.
The roofs curve gracefully & appear to float. A complex bracket system distributes the weight.
A flexible stepped truss system controls the pitch (steepness) & curve of the roof.
(In the west, a rigid triangular pediment is used.)

Chinese & Japanese Architecture:

Hoodo, Byodo-ln Temple, Uji, Kyoto, Prefecture, Japan, C. 1053

Round Arch and Vault

Romans perfected a round, semi-circle arch in the 2nd centurey B.C.

Tension

Pulling apart

Compression

Pushing together

Keystone

Top center stone (makes the arch stable)

Arches:

Are an attractive shape.
Open up large spaces in a wall, while keeping the wall structurally safe

The open spaces provided by arches:

Let in light,
Reduce the weight of the wall,
Reduce the amount of material needed to construct them.

Vault:

An arched structure or roof that spans an interior space. (Pont du Gard, Nimes, France. Early 1st century, C.E. 902' L)

Barrel Arch & Vault

When the depth of an arch is extendedarches, each one right behind the one in front.) Think of a train tunnel.

Problems of barrel vaults:

Height is limited by the width
(because it's a semi-circle).
Very heavy - needs masses of stone to support it. Because they exert outward thrust all along the base, cannot weaken with openings, so are very dark

Romanesque style of the Middle Ages:

a stone barrel vault was set as the ceiling over the nave (the long central area), hiding the roof structure from view. It unified the interior visually.
(Interior, Church of Sainte-Foy, Conques, France. c. 1050-1120)

Pointed Arch & Vault:
The Gothic Style

Because it is pointed, the weight is channeled to the ground at a steeper angle, so the arch can taller.Does not need heavy masses of material, as long as the ribs (major points of intersection) are reinforced.
• More openings can be used, & so more light comes in.
• Stained glass was used to admit colored light.

Advantages of pointed arch structure:

Because it is pointed, the weight is channeled to the ground at a steeper angle, so the arch can taller.Does not need heavy masses of material, as long as the ribs (major points of intersection) are reinforced.
More openings can be used, & so more light comes in.
Stained glass was used to admit colored light.
(Nave, Reims Cathedral, France, c.1211 - 1290.)

Buttress:

upright support (lean against a wall)
If you stand away from a wall & push on it with your arms, your body is a: Pier.
Your arms are the flying buttresses.
(Cathedral of Le Mans, France, 1217-54.)

DOME (Pantheon, Rome, 118-125 CE)

A structure shaped like a half-globe. This form was perfected by the Romans.
The Roman Pantheon is a rotunda (round building).

Oculus

Opening at the top of a dome, "the eye of god"

Coffered

Recessed rectangles which lessen the weight

Balloon-Frame Construction:

a true skeleton-and-skin method. Two innovations: better ways to mill lumber, & mass-produced nails. Uses wood two-by-four frame construction, a roof & a lightweight sheath (clapboard, stucco, etc.). The name was sarcastic. People thought these buildings would fall down, or burst like balloons! This is still a popular & useful style, but wood is not strong enough to support tall skyscrapers

Concrete:

a mixture of cement, gravel & water - can be poured. Will set to hardness in a mold of any shape, but, is brittle & has low
tensile strength

Ferroconcreted

Concrete with iron rods or steel mesh embedded in it. This is shell construction.

Ferroconcrete Architecture:

Joern Utzon, Sydney Opera House, Sydney, Australia,

Great Friday Mosque.Djenne, Mali.Adobe.Rebuilt 1907 in original style

Temple of Amon-Mut-Khonsu,Luxor, Egypt.Stone. Begun c.1390 B.C.E

Temple of Athena Nike. Marble. Acropolis, Athens,Greece.427-424 BCE

These elements were copied by Romans; known as Classical Architec.
Greek Column Styles: DORIC, IONIC & CORINTHIAN

Elements of Chinese architecture

Established as early as the 2nd century B.C.E. (During the 6th century C.E., Japan copied these & other elements of Chinese culture.) China & Japan also used post & lintel
construction, but in contrast with Greece & Rome, they use wood instead of stone.

Bracket System

The roofs curve gracefully & appear to float. A complex system distributes the weight. A flexible stepped truss system controls the pitch (steepness) & curve of the roof.

Hoodo, Byodo-ln Temple, Uji, Kyoto, Prefecture, Japan, C. 1053

Pont du Gard, Nimes, France. Early 1st century, C.E.

When the depth of an arch is extended, it is called a
barrel vault (several arches,
each one right behind the one in front.) Think of a train tunnel.

Interior, Church of Sainte-Foy, Conques, France. c. 1050-1120

The Gothic style & pointed arch structure

Nave, Reims Cathedral, France

Cathedral of Le Mans, France

Pantheon, Rome, 118-125 CE Dedicated to "all the gods."

Portico, or porch,

Visitors enter the Roman Pantheon through this opening in the round building

Taj Mahal, Aggra, India, 1632-53

Constructed entirely of pure white marble. Built as a tomb for a Muslim emperor's wife.

Alexandre Gustav Eiffel. Eiffel Tower, Paris, 1889.

Buckminster Fuller, U.S. Pavilion, Montreal, 1967.

Frank O. Gehry, Guggenheim Museum
Bilboa, Spain, 1997.

Museums are works of art that display works of art.

Moshe Safdie, Habitat Montreal, 1967.

Purposes of Architecture

Shigeru Ban, Japan Pavilion, Hanover Expo, Germany, 2000

Green Architecture

Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco, 1937.

Suspension: Pylons are planted in the water; the weight of the structure is supported by suspended steel cables under tension

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