A process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. The term often refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity because they share skilled-labor pools and technological and financial amenities.
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
the ability to do work or cause change
friction of distance
the increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance
the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation
the basic supposer systems needed to keep an economy going, including power, communications, transportation, water, sanitation, and education systems.
productive work (especially physical work done for wages)
least cost theory
Model developed by Alfred Weber according to which the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three critical expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration.
a logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of economic activities & the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated
Something used by an industry to be processed into a more finished state.
the manufacturing industries like chemical, textile, and other
an expression may be replaced by another expression that has the same value
the United States federal department that institutes and coordinates national transportation programs
a cost that rises or falls depending on how much is produced
break of bulk
point where transportation transfers are made
the ability to produce a good at a lower opportunity cost than another producer
a metropolitan area given official health to strengthen its economic development
an assembly plant in Mexico (near the United States border)
North American Free Trade
an economic pact that combined the economies of the United States, Canada and Mexico into one of the world's largest trade blocs.
primary industrial region
the result of mapped industrial concentrations (West and Central Europe, Eastern and North America, Russia, Ukraine, and East Asia)
Secondary industrial region Special Economic Zone
core periphery model
A model of the spatial structure of development in which underdeveloped countries are defined by their dependence on a developed core region.
The centers of economic, political, and/or cultural power within a given territorial entity.
a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones
those countries having much technology and manufacturing
any of the world's poor, or "have-not," nations.
act of improving by expanding or enlarging or refining
gross national product
former measure of the United States economy
A general term for economic development models which assume that (1) all countries are capable of developing economically in the same way and (2) economic disparities between countries and regions are the result of short-term inefficiencies in local or regional market forces.
A model of economic development most closely associated with the work of economist Walter Rostow. The modernization model (sometimes referred to as modernization theory) maintains that all countries go through five interrelated stages of development, which culminate in an economic state of self-sustained economic growth and high levels of mass consumption.
a process of acculturation or cultural imperialism through which forms of industrial, political and economic organization are often imposed on other cultures under the guise of getting aid in the form of technological and industrial "progress," but it can still lead to good things, like bringing needed infrastructure
The least powerful regions and therefore are often marginalized or under the control of both semi-peripheral regions and core regions.
semi peripheral region
region that are somewhat powerful
Believes not all countries will be able to develop.
Countries that suffer seriously from negative economic and social conditions.
The condition experienced by economies that depend on colonial forms of production such as the export of raw materials and plantation crops with low wages and low investment in education.
World systems theory
economic and political connections that tie the world's countries together
growth to a global or worldwide scale
system of standardized mass production attributed to Henry Ford
foreign direct investment
a joint venture between a foreign company and a United States company
high technology corridors
areas alone or near major transportation arteries that are devoted to research, development, and sale of high technology products
manufacturing export zones
host country establishes areas with favorable tax and trade arrangements in order to attract foreign manufacturing operations
new international division of labor
Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid less skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries.
Centers or nodes of high-technology research and activity around which a high-technology corridor is sometimes established.
time space compression
through processes such as globalization time is accelerated and the significance of space is reduced
time space convergence
idea that idstance between some places is actually shrinking as technology enables more rapid communication and increased interaction between those places
most important centers of economic power and wealth