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Professor Pegler's research efforts focus on how the use of heuristics influences the way people assess financial risks. Which specialty area does his research best represent?

cognitive psychology

When we use the word "automobile" to refer to a category of transport vehicles, we are using this word as a(n):

concept.

Having learned the rule that a triangle has three sides, we thereafter classify all three-sided geometric forms as triangles. This best illustrates the role of ______ in concept formation.

category hierarchies

In the process of classifying objects, people are especially likely to make use of:

prototypes.

Eva had difficulty recognizing that a sea horse was a fish because it did not closely resemble her fish:

prototype.

People are likely to take less time to recognize a woman as a nurse than a man as a nurse because a woman more closely resembles their nurse:

prototype.

A chess-playing computer program that routinely calculates all possible outcomes of all possible game moves best illustrates problem solving by means of:

an algorithm.

The use of heuristics rather than algorithms is most likely to:

save time in arriving at solutions to problems.

As he attempted to spell the word "receive," Tim reminded himself "i before e except after c." Tim's self-reminder best illustrates the use of:

a heuristic.

Unlike the use of algorithms or heuristics, insight does not involve:

strategy-based solutions.

After spending two hours trying to solve an engineering problem, Amira finally gave up. As she was trying to fall asleep that night, a solution to the problem popped into her head. Amira's experience best illustrates:

insight.

Because she believes that boys are naughtier than girls, Mrs. Zumpano, a second-grade teacher, watches boys more closely than she watches girls for any signs of misbehavior. Mrs. Zumpano's surveillance strategy best illustrates:

confirmation bias.

University students were asked to figure out the rule used to devise the three-number sequence 2-4-6. After generating sets of three numbers to learn whether their sets met the rule, they typically convinced themselves of the wrong rule. Their errors best illustrated the impact of:

confirmation bias.

Some people are unable to arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles because they fail to consider a three-dimensional arrangement. This best illustrates the effects of ________ on problem solving.

fixations

Marlene forgot to bring a pillow on the camping trip, so she spent a very uncomfortable and restless night. Unfortunately, she never thought of using her down-filled jacket as a pillow. Marlene's oversight best illustrates:

functional fixedness.

The representativeness heuristic refers to our tendency to:

judge the likelihood of category membership by how closely an object or event resembles a particular prototype

Miss Jan De Jong is orderly, neat, fairly quiet, and shy. She enjoys reading in her spare time and belongs to a social club that includes three librarians, nine real estate agents, and eight social workers. A tendency to conclude that Jan must be one of the three librarians would illustrate the powerful influence of:

the representativeness heuristic.

A televised image of a starving child had a greater impact on Mr. White's perception of the extensiveness of world hunger than did a statistical chart summarizing the tremendous scope of the problem. This suggests that his assessment of the world hunger problem is influenced by:

the availability heuristic.

By encouraging people to imagine their homes being destroyed by winds from a hurricane, insurance salespeople are especially successful at selling large homeowners' policies. They are most clearly exploiting the influence of:

the availability heuristic.

A single, memorable case of welfare fraud can have a greater impact on people's estimates of welfare abuse than do statistics showing that this case is actually the exception to the rule. This illustrates that judgments are influenced by the:

availability heuristic.

Which of the following best accounts for people's greater fear of commercial air flights than of driving an automobile?

perceived control

The risks of smoking are more alarming when presented in terms of the number of smokers with lung cancer than the percentage of smokers with lung cancer. This illustrates the importance of:

framing.

People are less upset when they miss getting an early payment discount than when they are asked to bear a late payment surcharge. This best illustrates the importance of:

framing.

People with opposing views of capital punishment reviewed mixed evidence regarding its effectiveness as a crime deterrent. As a result, their opposing views differed more strongly than ever. This best illustrates:

belief perseverance.

Babies' receptive language ability is best illustrated by their capacity to:

match another person's distinctive mouth movements with the appropriate sounds.

Infants are first able to discriminate speech sounds during the ________ stage.

babbling

At the age of 15 months, Anita repeatedly cries "hoy" when she wants her mother to hold her. Anita is most likely in the ________ stage of language development.

one-word

With respect to the debate over the process of language development, nature is to nurture as ________ is to ________.

Chomsky; Skinner

Noam Chomsky has emphasized that the acquisition of language by children is facilitated by:

an inborn readiness to learn grammatical rules.

It is difficult to explain language acquisition solely in terms of imitation and reinforcement because children:

generate all sorts of sentences they have never heard before.

Chomksy suggested that diverse human languages share a:

universal grammar.

The best evidence that there is a critical period for language acquisition is the fact that:

people most easily master the grammar of a second language during childhood.

Compared to Deaf adults exposed to sign language from birth, those who first learn sign language as teens are less likely to:

comprehend grammatical subtleties of sign language.

Many people who are bilingual experience a different sense of self, depending on which language they are using. This most clearly illustrates the implications of:

Whorf's linguistic determinism hypothesis.

Bilingual children who inhibit one language while using the other, can better inhibit their attention to irrelevant information. This has been called:

the bilingual advantage.

Introductory psychology students performed best on a midterm psychology test if they had previously spent five minutes a day visualizing themselves:

studying effectively.

In Wolfgang Köhler's experiment, the chimpanzee Sultan retrieved a long stick with a short stick to retrieve a piece of fruit. Sultan was able to reach the fruit as a result of:

insight.

If using a stick is successful in retrieving termites from a mound, chimpanzees improve their ability to use sticks for this purpose. This illustrates that the chimps' problem-solving strategy is shaped by:

reinforcement.

One group of Australian dolphins learned to use marine sponges to catch fish. This best illustrates their capacity to:

transmit cultural innovations.

Beatrice and Allen Gardner taught the chimpanzee Washoe to communicate by means of:

sign language.

Research on the language capabilities of apes clearly demonstrates that they have the capacity to

communicate through the use of symbols.

Those who are skeptical with regard to claims that apes share our capacity for language are especially likely to highlight chimps' limited ability to use:

syntax.

Experts would most likely agree that intelligence is a(n):

mental ability to learn from experience.

Factor analysis is a statistical procedure that can be used to:

identify clusters of closely related test items.

Twenty-five-year-old Alexandra is mentally handicapped and can neither read nor write. However, after hearing lengthy, unfamiliar, and complex musical selections just once, she can reproduce them precisely on the piano. It is likely that Alexandra is:

someone with savant syndrome.

The characteristics of savant syndrome most directly suggest that intelligence is:

a diverse set of distinct abilities.

Those who define intelligence as academic aptitude are most likely to criticize:

Gardner's concept of multiple intelligences.

Robert Sternberg distinguished among analytical, practical, and ________ intelligence.

creative

Generating multiple possible answers to a problem illustrates:

divergent thinking.

The most creative scientists are those who:

approach problems they find intrinsically interesting and satisfying to study.

When Professor McGuire asks her students to answer questions in class, she can quickly tell from their facial expressions whether they are happy to participate. Professor McGuire's perceptual skill best illustrates:

emotional intelligence.

Although Nicole scored well above average on an academic aptitude test, she frequently loses her temper and needlessly antagonizes even her best friends. Her behavior best illustrates a low level of:

emotional intelligence.

The concept of emotional intelligence is most likely to be criticized for:

extending the definition of intelligence to an overly broad range of skills.

In order to determine whether a child's intellectual development was fast or slow, Binet and Simon assessed the child's:

mental age.

To assess mental age, Binet and Simon measured children's:

reasoning skills.

For the original version of the Stanford-Binet, IQ was defined as:

mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100.

A 12-year-old who responded to the original Stanford-Binet with the proficiency typical of an average 9-year-old was said to have an IQ of:

75.

Object assembly, picture arrangement, and block design are three performance subtests of the:

WAIS.

A test of your capacity to learn to be an automobile mechanic would be considered a(n) ________ test.

aptitude

Achievement tests are designed to:

assess learned knowledge or skills.

The written exam for a driver's license would most likely be considered a(n) ________ test.

achievement

When Brandon was told that he correctly answered 80 percent of the items on a mathematical achievement test, he asked how his performance compared with that of the average test taker. Brandon's concern was directly related to the issue of:

standardization.

If a test yields consistent results every time it is used, it has a high degree of:

reliability.

Melinda completed the Computer Programming Aptitude Test when she applied for a position with Beta Electronics. Six months later, she took the same test when she applied for a position with another company. The fact that her scores were almost identical on the two occasions suggests that the test has a high degree of:

reliability.

Researchers assess the correlation between scores obtained on two halves of a single test in order to measure the ________ of a test.

reliability

A measure of intelligence based on head size is likely to have a ________ level of reliability and a ________ level of validity.

high; low

If a road test for a driver's license adequately samples the tasks a driver routinely faces, the test is said to have:

content validity.

Your psychology professor has announced that the next test will assess your understanding of sensation and perception. When you receive the test, however, you find that very few questions actually relate to these topics. In this instance, you would be most concerned about the ________ of the test.

content validity

Psychologists would calculate the relationship between intelligence test scores and school grades in order to assess the ________ of the intelligence test.

predictive validity

Terman's observations of 1500 California children with IQ scores over 135 contradicted the popular notion that intellectually gifted children are typically:

socially maladjusted.

Over the past 50 years, children with mental retardation have increasing been likely to:

be mainstreamed into regular school classrooms.

Comparing average Wechsler and Stanford-Binet test performance levels between 1918 and 1989 provides convincing evidence of:

the Flynn effect

The heritability of intelligence refers to:

the percentage of variation in intelligence within a group that is attributable to genetic factors.

Research indicates that Head Start programs:

reduce the likelihood that participants will repeat grades or require special education.

Research on racial and ethnic differences in intelligence indicates that:

the average mathematics achievement test scores of Asian children are higher than those of North American children.

the average mathematics achievement test scores of Asian children are higher than those of North American children.

Exposure to high levels of male sex hormones during prenatal development is most likely to facilitate the subsequent development of:

spatial abilities.

When completing a verbal aptitude test, members of an ethnic minority group are particularly likely to perform below their true ability levels if they believe that the test:

is biased against members of their own ethnic group.

Jim, age 55, plays basketball with much younger adults and is concerned that his teammates might consider his age to be a detriment to their game outcome. His concern actually undermines his athletic performance. This best illustrates the impact of

stereotype threat.

Intelligence tests have effectively reduced discrimination in the sense that they have:

helped limit reliance on educators' subjectively biased judgments of students' academic potential.

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