Site: Toros-Menalla, Chad
Date: 7-6 Ma
Fossils: complete skull, tooth & jaw fragments
Brain size: Small ape-size, 320-380 cc
Body size: Not estimated
Skull: Foramen magnum placed anteriorly,
massive brow ridges, relatively orthognathic
Teeth: Reduce canines, no honing facet, no
diastema, Intermediate enamel thickness
Habitat: Gallery forest, stream or lake
Tools: None Since no postcranial remains (bones below the skull) have been discovered, it is as of yet unknown whether Sahelanthropus tchadensis was indeed bipedal, although claims for an anteriorly placed foramen magnum suggests that this may have been the case, some paleontologists have disputed this interpretation of the basicranium. Primitive traits? derived traits? use of fauna for dating site? faunal habitat preferences? paleo environmental reconstruction?
Site: LukeinoFormation, Baringo, Kenya
Fossils: Femur & humerusfragments, teeth
& jaw fragments
Date: ~ 6 Ma
Teeth: Small molars with thick enamel,
chimp-like anterior teeth
Postcrania: Femur human-like, humerusbuilt
Tools: None. The obturator externus groove on the posterior aspect of the neck of the fossil femur suggests that Orrorin tugenensis moved bipedally. Other fossils (leaves and many mammals) found in the Lukeino Formation show that Orrorin lived in dry evergreen forest environment, not the savanna assumed by many theories of human evolution.
ANTH 2502, McBrearty 3
Site: East African Rift Valley. Aramis,
Middle Awash region of Afar, Ethiopia.
Dates: c. 4.4 -4.0 Ma
Fossils: Teeth & jaws, occipital fragments,
humerus, radius, ulna.
Body size: c. 40 kg.
Brain size: Apelike, precise size not
Teeth: Canines large, posterior teeth
relatively small; no ape-like honing facet
on canines; premolars not molarized; thin
enamel; dental arcade shape similar to A.
afarensis, but canines in line with
posterior teeth like apes.
Skull: Foramen magnum placed anteriorly.
Postcrania: Forelimb a mixture of ape-like
and A. afarensis-like features, no
adaptation for knuckle-walking.
Habitat: Floodplain. Forest or woodland
Tools: None. Ramidus and kadabba! The toe and pelvic structure of A. ramidus suggests that the creature walked upright.
According to Scott Simpson, the Gona Project's physical anthropologist, the fossil evidence from the Middle Awash indicates that both A. kadabba and A. ramidus lived in "a mosaic of woodland and grasslands with lakes, swamps and springs nearby," but further research is needed to determine which habitat Ardipithecus at Gona preferred. Primitive/derived traits?
Sites: AlliaBay & Kanapoi, East Turkana,
Dates: AlliaBay: 3.9 Ma, Kanapoi: 3.4 -3.1
Fossils: Tibia, humerus, temporal, teeth &
Body size: 45-60 Kg, very dimorphic
Brain size: Apelike, precise size not known.
Teeth: Large canine, no honing facet on
canine, thick enamel on all teeth
Skull: Mandibulararticulation & external
auditory meatussize & shape chimp-like
Postcrania: Bipedal, less flexibility in ankle
& big toe than chimp, powerful climber
Habitat: riverinefloodplain, mixture of
open savanna & woodland fauna.
Tools: None. Teeth and Jaws HUman like traits? Teeth and Jaws Ape like traits? Paleoenvironment? Knuckle walker? why or why not? good climber? why or why not?
Sites: East African Rift Valley. Afar (Hadar), Ethiopia;
Fossils: Many individuals, cranial, dental & postcranial
remains. Footprints at Laetoli
AL-288-1: "Lucy"40% complete female partial skeleton.
AL-333: "First family"
AL-444-2: Nearly complete male cranium.
Dates: Laetoli 3.5 Ma, Hadar3.0-3.4 Ma.
Body size: c. 25-60 kg. Height: c. 3'3" to 5'7".
Very dimorphic, females c. 65% of male body weight.
Brain size: Small (ape range): 400-500 cc.
Teeth: Large dimorphic canines, diastemasometimes present,
incisors fairly large, molarizedpremolars, molars large, low
crowned with thick enamel, tooth rows converge at rear,
third molar smaller than first and second molars.
Skull: Prognathic, nuchalcrest & sagittal supraorbital torus in
males, foramen magnum placed anteriorly.
Postcrania: Bipedalfeatures: Human-like carrying angle of
knee, shallow broad pelvis, big toe in line with other toes.
Other features indicate possible climbing ability: Long
forearms, curved finger & toe bones, upward-facing shoulder
Habitat: Woodland & semiarid savanna. Tools: None.
Site: Lomweki, Kenya
Date: 3.5-3.2 Ma
Fossils: Complete skull
Skull: Moderate prognathism
Teeth: Small Molars
Tools: None. Paleoenvironment? what are the features that lead leaky to believe Kenyathropus was an ancestor of homo? Why does tim white dispute this?
Sites: Taung, Sterkfontein, Makapansgat, South
Dates: 2.3 -~3.5 Ma.
Fossils: Many individuals, cranial, dental and
Taung: Nearly complete juvenile cranium.
Sterkfontein: "Mrs. Ples"(STS 5): Nearly
complete adult cranium; "Little Foot":Nearly
Brain size: Small (ape range): < 450 cc.
Body size: Similar to A. afarensis: c. 25 -40 kg,
Teeth: Parabolic dental arcade, large molars &
premolars with thick enamel, small incisors & canines,
Skull: "Dish-shaped" face, canine pillar, foramen
magnum placed anteriorly, no sagittal crest on most
Postcrania: Similar to A. afarensis.
Habitat: Semiarid savanna.
Sites: Kromdraai, Swartkraans, South Africa
Fossils: Many individuals, cranial, dental &
Dates: 1.8 -1.6 Ma.
Brain size: c. 550-600 cc.
Body size: Females c. 30 kg; males c. 40 kg.
Teeth: Parabolic dental arcade, very large
molars & premolars with thick enamel, very
small incisors & canines, no diastema, massive
jaws, flat tooth wear.
Skull: Low forehead, prominent sagittal crest in
males, flat bony face, no canine pillar, large
supraorbitaltorus in males, flaring zygomatic
arch, foramen magnum placed anteriorly.
Postcrania: Similar to other Australopithecines,
bipedal. Fingers capable of fine manipulation
necessary for tool making.
Habitat: Semiarid savanna, locally wooded
Tools: Oldowan(but Homopresent in same cave
deposits), possible polished bone tools.
Sites: West Turkana, Kenya; Omo, Ethiopia.
Dates: 2.6-2.4 Ma.
Fossils: Two complete crania, teeth & jaws.
KNM-WT 17000 ("Black skull") adult male
cranium, KNM-WT 17400 juvenile male partial
Body size: Similar to A. boisei, very dimorphic.
Brain size: small, c. 400 cc.
Teeth: Very large posterior teeth, small
anterior teeth, massive jaws, third molar
smaller than first and second molars, flat
tooth wear, tooth rows converge at rear.
Skull: Very prognathic, very flared zygomatics,
very prominent compound sagittal & nuchal
crests in male, flat cranial base, heart-shaped
Postcrania: None described. Habitat: Semiarid
savanna, locally wooded conditions.
Sites: Olduvai, Tanzania; Koobi Fora& West Turkana, Kenya.
Dates: 1.8 -0.96 Ma.
Fossils: Many specimens, mostly cranial & dental.
OH 5: Olduvai Gorge Bed I, adult male cranium
("Zinjanthropus") formerly zinj
KNM-ER 406: Koobi Fora, Adult male cranium
KNM-ER 732: Koobi Fora, Adult female cranium.
Brain size: Small c. 400-500 cc.
Body size: Maximum 70 kg; Very dimorphic: females c. 70%
male body weight.
Teeth: Parabolic dental arcade, extremely large molars &
premolars with thick enamel, extremely small incisors &
canines, no diastema, very massive jaws, flat tooth wear.
Skull: Massive cranium, low forehead, very prominent
sagittal & nuchal crests, flat bony face, large subraorbital
torus, extremely flaring zygomaticarch, no canine pillar,
heart-shaped foramen magnum, placed anteriorly.
Postcrania: Similar to other Australopithecines, bipedal.
Habitat: Semiarid savanna, locally wooded conditions.
Tools: Oldowan(but Homopresent in same deposits).
Site: HataMember, Bouri Formation,
Middle Awash, Ethiopia
Date: 2.5 Ma
Fossils: Skull BOU-VP-12/130, femur,
humerus, radius, ulna, proximal pedal
Skull: Prognathicface, procumbent incisors,
Teeth: Large anterior & posterior teeth,
small diastema, tooth wear not flat.
Postcrania: Human like femur-humerusratio
(long femur), apelike upper-lower arm ratio
(long lower arm), sexually dimorphic.
Brain size: ~450 cc
Stone tools; none, but cut-marked animal
bone associated with A. garhi fossils.
Oldowantools present at other sites in
same time interval e.g. Gona.
Sites: Olduvai, Tanzania; Koobi Fora, Kenya.
Dates: 1.9 -1.6 Ma.
Fossils: Numerous cranial, dental & postcranial
OH 7: mandible, parietal fragments, hand bones.
OH 8: Nearly complete foot.
OH 62: Partial skeleton.
KNM-ER 1805, KNM-ER 1813: Partial crania.
Brain size: Large, > 600 cc.
Body size: 40 -50 kg, probably dimorphic.
Teeth: Parabolic dental arcade, large incisors &
canines, no diastema, molars & premolars narrow,
smaller than Australopithecus.
Skull: Thin bones of cranial vault, high forehead,
large braincase, no sagittal crest, flat bony face,
small supraorbitaltorus, foramen magnum placed
Postcrania: Long forelimbs, hand with ape-like
features, foot mixture of features for bipedalism
and adaptations for climbing.
Sites: Koobi Fora, Kenya.
Date: c. 1.9 Ma.
Fossils: Cranial, dental & postcranial
KNM-ER 1470: Nearly complete cranium.
Brain size: Large, c. 750 cc.
Body size: ? c. 50 kg, probably dimorphic.
Teeth: Large incisors & canines, molars &
Skull: No supraorbital torus, face
Postcrania: Femur & foot like later Homo,
no climbing adaptation.
Habitat: Semiarid savanna, locally wooded
Tools: None directly associated with
fossils, but Oldowantools present at sites
in same time interval.
Homonid Time line
Humans: Homo sapiens
(Now: Pan troglodytes) ~7 Ma
Savanna Hypothesis"Origin of Bipedalism
"East Side Story
Fossil Chimpanzee Molar KNM-TH 45520
•Low Crown (Bunodont)
•Cusp Pattern Like Pan
KNM-TH 45519 &
•Very thick at Base
Chimps' favorite food is
Fruit grows on trees
Mount Assirik, Senegal. Home of the 'savanna chimpanzee'
•Longer Dry Season
•Food Less Abundant
•Less Preferred Food Eaten
Chimp Habitats changeable.
Habitat of common ancestor not
known yet. Savanna Hypothesis probably not
the reason for divergence of chimp &
Living & Extinct Apes & Humans
Living African Apes (Chimps &
Gorillas) & Humans
[Limping Dreadfully,] King Phillip Came Over From Great Spain
Standing for: [Life, Domain,] Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.
Camels Often Sit Down Carefully. Perhaps Their Joints Creak. Possibly Early Oiling Might Prevent Premature Rheumatism
Which stands for: Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, Jurrasic, Cretaceous, Pliocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Myocene, Pileocene, Pleistocene, Recent.
Humans & Extinct Bipeds
(e.g. Homo, Australopithecus)
What are the criteria for inclusion
2. Differ from chimps & gorillas
3. Resemble later hominins
(Absence Diastema& Honing Facet)
(Large Ms & PMs)
•Thick Tooth Enamel
Early Hominin Taxa
Sahelanthropus ~ 7 Ma. Orrorin ~ 6 Ma.
Ardipithecus kadabba ~ 5.8-5.2 Ma
Ardipithecus ramidus ~ 4.4 Ma
Estimated age: 6 - 7 Ma
Derived hominin features
1. Enamel thickness intermediate
2. Large supraorbital
supraorbital torus (A protruding bony brow-ridge, frequently found in early hominid skulls and most marked in male gorillas.)
3. Reduced prognathism (bnormal protrusion of one or both jaws, especially the lower jaw.)
4. Anterior position of foramen magnum (The large orifice in the base of the skull through which the spinal cord passes to the cranial cavity and becomes continuous with the medulla oblongata.)
5. Small canines
6. No honing facet
7. No canine
1.Small brain size (ape like)
2.Petrousportion (ear area) of
temporal bone oriented like chimp
Modern Chimps Fossil Hominins
A Mixture of Primitive
& Derived Traits
•Anterior Teeth Chimp-
•Small Molars (Chimp-
•Thick Enamel (Human-
to Bipedalism in Femur
•Climbing Ability in
•5.8 -5.2 Ma
•Toe bone: possible biped?
•Ardi = Ground
Ardipithecusa Mixture of
Primitive & Derived Traits
Derived (Human-Like) Features:
1. Canines Small & Incisor-Like
2. No Honing Facet on PM
3. Forward Position of Foramen Magnum
Primitive (Ape-Like) Features:
1. No Post-Canine Megadontia(Ms & PMsSmall)
2. Thin Tooth Enamel
3. Small External Auditory Meatus(Ear Tube)
4. Powerful Arms For Climbing
Pelvis morphology not known yet!
Early Hominin Taxa common features
•Possible Bipedalism (Femur, Foramen Magnum)
•Reduced Canines (Disatema, Honing Facet)
•Enamel: Thin or Intermediate Thickness
•Climbing Abilities (Forelimbs)
•Sahelanthropus: Skull Resembles Later Hominins
(Orthognathic, Large Supraorbital Torus)
•Environment: Trees, Grass, Water (Time
"Southern ape from the afar region." > 60 individuals known. Dates 3 - 3.6 Ma. Major sites: Hadar & laetoli. Biped with climbing abilities. Brain size? ankles? fingers and toes?
Hadar Ethiopia 1974. 3-3.2 Ma. 40% compete skeleton. Sandy stream. channel environment. Long arms, short legs, flaring pelvis, valgus ( deformity in which there is an abnormal displacement of part of a limb away from the midline of the body ) knee. Wedged shaped sacrum (The sacrum is a large, triangular bone at the base of the spine and at the upper and back part of the pelvic cavity)
Australopithicus afarensis adaptions for bipedalism
flaring pelvis, valgus knee, expanded joint surfaces (knee, ankle, hip).
Australopithicus afarensis adaptions for climbing
upward facing scapula, long arms, powerful climbing muscles,long curved fingers, flexible knee and ankle, long curved toes, partly divergent big toe.
mandible AL -400 Australopithicus afarensis
reduced canines. no diastema. no P3 honing facet. 'molarizied' premolars. molars increase in size to rear. very thick enamel (hard white substance covering the crown of a tooth)
Laetoli, 3.6 Ma. 6 levels, best preserved at site G. 3 individuals, 2 larger 1 smaller. Length of trail = 27m. Stride length = 35 - 50cm. Height estimates = 4' 7" to 4' 11" Gait is slow walk. semiarid savanna environment.
Anam=Lake. Sites near lake Turkana. (Allia Bay, Kanapoi, Lothagm) Dates 3-4Ma. Order in time: 1. Ardipithicus Ramidus. 2. australopithicus anamensis. 3. australopithicus afarensis & Kenyanthropus platyops
Ape Like: Large Canines, articulation of mandible, external auditory meatus (ear hole) small. Human like: flat wear on canine, no honing facet, thick enamel.
Tibia (proximal, right)
Chimp: No Valgus knee, no shock absorber, larger articulation for fibula, mobile ankle & big toe. A. anamensis & Human: valgus knee, shock absorber, small articulation for fibula, no mobile ankle & big toe.
Chimp: locking elbow for knuckle walking. aust anamensis: no locking mechanism and no knuckle walking
2.4 -3.5 Ma
1.8 -1.6 Ma
Dated by Biostratigraphy
Homo & stone tools present after ~2 Ma
Similar A. afarensis
Brain Size: Most < 450 Cc
Taung: 404 cc
Mrs. Ples: 485 cc
Makapan: 435 cc
Habitat Wooded Grassland Teeth & Jaws:
Rear Teeth Large, Front Teeth (Is & Cs) Small, PMs Molarized
Face: Dished Profile, Facial Buttressing, Canine Pillar
Cranial Evidence for Bipedalism:
Foramen Magnum Forward, Semi Circular Canals of Inner Ear
•Heavily Built Cranium
•Pneumatised Facial Bones
•Large Supraorbital Torus (Brow Ridges)
• Sagittal Crest (Males)
•Flaring Zygoma (Cheek Bones)
•Brain Size > 500 cc
Kromdraai: 650 cc
Swarkraans: 530 cc
(Scales with Body Size)
• Body Size ≥ 36 kg
• Larger than Australopithecus africanus
• Sexually Dimorphic
• Face Hafted High on
• Low Forehead
• Sagittal Crest (Males)
• Flaring Zygoma (Cheek Bones)
• Pneumatised Facial Bones
• Large Supraorbital Torus (Brow Ridge)
• Flat Facial Profile
• Very Large Ms & PMs
•M3 > M2 > M1
•TinyIncisors & Canines
•Is & Cs Vertically Placed
•Flat wear on big cheek teeth (Ms & PMs).
•Small front teeth (Is & Cs) allow free side-
to-side chewing motion.
•Large Body Size
Low Metabolic Rate
•Large Quantities of Low Quality Food
•Very Large Molars & Premolars
•Small Incisors & Canines
•Roots, Tubers, Bark, Stems
•Tool Assisted? Seasonal?
Evolution of a karsticcave system
excavation, opening, fill, collapse
•Talus: Rubble (Rocks, Bones, Soil)
•Travertine, Speleothem, Flowstone:
(e.g. Stalgtites& Stalactitees)
•Breccia: Rubble cemented together
were capable of
ardipithicus ramidus ramidus
Its distinguishing characteristics are bipedalism incorporating an arboreal grasping hallux or big toe, reduced canine teeth and a smaller brain size comparable to that of the modern chimpanzee. External auditory meatus? Permanent and Deciduous teeth?
Ardipithecus kadabba primitive teeth
Ardipithecus kadabba is "known only from teeth and bits and pieces of skeletal bones", and is dated to approximately 5.6 million years ago. It has been described as a "probable chronospecies" (i.e. ancestor) of A. ramidus. Although originally considered a subspecies of A. ramidus, in 2004 anthropologists Yohannes Haile-Selassie, Gen Suwa, and Tim D. White published an article elevating A. kadabba to species level on the basis of newly-discovered teeth from Ethiopia. These teeth show "primitive morphology and wear pattern" which demonstrate that A. kadabba is a distinct species from A. ramidus.
a round bump on a bone where it forms a joint with another bone
AL333 'first family'
commonly referred to as the "First Family", is a collection of prehistoric hominid teeth and bones. Discovered in 1975 by Donald Johanson's team in Hadar, Ethiopia, the "First Family" is estimated to be about 3.2 million years old and consists of the remains of at least thirteen individuals. They are generally thought to be members of the species Australopithecus afarensis. environment?
What are the features of the A. afarensis pelvis? Why is pelvis shaped like it is?
Why is scapula shaped like it is?
What are features of 444 lower arm? What is significance of this?
Don Johanson's idea:
Richard Leakey's idea:
Why is this site important?
How many hominids made the Laetoli footprints?
How tall were they?
How were the footprints formed? How were the Laetoli feet similar to modern human feet?
How might they be different?
What was the Laetoli environment like?
How is human walking different from a chimp's?
A. afarensis adaptations for bipedalism:
A. afarensis adaptations for climbing:
What are some possible reasons for the origin of bipedalism?
display. carrying provisions. savanna hypothesis proven wrong. reaching.
What are some possible reasons for the origin of bipedalism?
What are the earliest fossils for the genus homo? how old are they?
what are the important features of A. gahri's teeth?
what are the important features of A. gahri's post skeletal remains?
why do some people suggest that a. garhi is closely related to homo?
how old are the oldest stone tools? where do they come from?
what are the ingredients of the earliest stone technology?
core, hammerstone, flake, cut marks, percussion marks, microwear, tooth marks
what was found at the site FLK? how old is it?
what is zinj?
postorbital constriction. saggital crest. temporal fossa, zygoma
australopithicus africanus vs. paranthropus robustus