micro quiz chapter 8

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When glucose is broken down by glycolysis during bacterial fermentation, what is the net production of ATP?

2 ATP

When the product of reaction A becomes the reactant of reaction B, the metabolic pathway is

linear

The principle sites of amphibolic interaction occur during

glycolysis and Krebs cycle

During which of the phases of cellular respiration is the majority of ATP formed?

electron transport

Feedback inhibition is best described as

Product binding to enzyme in non-competitive site

An apoenzyme

Is the protein part of a holoenzyme

In addition to electrons, which of the following is also involved in electron transfer?

hydrogen

True or False: Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts of prokaryotes.

false

In which pathway is the most NADH generated?

Krebs cycle

True or false:





ATP synthase is a complex enzyme needed for oxidative phosphorylation.

true

True or False:





Oxygen-containing ions are used by some bacteria in a cytochrome-like system.

true

Which of the following is not true of anaerobic respiration?

Uses the same final electron acceptors as aerobic respiration

True or False:





Building block molecules for biosynthetic pathways come from the cell's catabolic pathways and from the environment.

true

The majority of reduced NAD is produced in

the Krebs cycle

In the cell, energy released by electrons is often used to phosphorylate

ADP

The property of organisms to integrate catabolic and anabolic pathways to improve cell efficiency is called

Amphibolism

All of the following are exoenzymes except

ATP synthase

FAD, NADP, NAD and coenzyme A are all _____ carriers.

Both hydrogen and electron

Which of the following is not a process that regenerates ATP?

Reductive phosphorylation

When enzyme action stops due to a buildup of end product, this control is called

Feedback inhibition

The cell's metabolic reactions involve the participation of _____ that lower the activation energy needed for the initiation of a reaction.

Enzymes

In bacterial cells, the electron transport system is located in the

Cell membrane

True or False:





Microbes can utilize only carbohydrates for energy production.

false

True or False:





ATP molecules are catalysts that lower the activation energy needed to initiate a reaction.

false

Enzymes that catalyze moving a phosphate from one substrate to another are called

Phosphotransferases

The formation of citric acid from oxaloacetic acid and an acetyl group begins

the Krebs cycle

All of the following pertain to glycolysis except

Degrades glucose to CO2 and H2O

Reduction of nitrogen-oxygen ions and compounds by some bacteria is called

Denitrification

During aerobic cellular respiration, the final electron acceptor is

Oxygen

In which stage of aerobic respiration is water produced?

electron transport system

Each of the following are electron carriers except

FADP

The step involving ATP, hexokinase and the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate is

An example of substrate-level phosphorylation

The process of forming glucose from various metabolic intermediates is called

Gluconeogenesis

Fermentation

Requires an organic electron acceptor

True or False: All organisms that are photosynthetic are oxygenic.

false

What chemical causes death in many eukaryotes because it blocks cytochrome c oxidase?

Cyanide

Each FADH2 from the Krebs cycle enters the electron transport system and gives rise to _____ ATP's.

2

True or False:





All aerobic bacterial species have identical electron acceptors in their electron transport systems.

false

Substrate level phosphorylation occurs in

Glycolysis and Krebs cycle

Which of the following are not photosynthetic pigments?

Leukophylls

Most electron carriers are

Coenzymes

Mixed acid fermentation

Produces several different acids plus CO2 and H2 gases

_____ reactions are anabolic reactions involving ligases for synthesis and the release of one water molecule for each bond formed.

Condensation

Ribozymes are

Catalysts for RNA splicing

True or False:





Hydrolysis reactions are catabolic reactions that use water to split the reactant into smaller subunits.

true

True or False:





Exoenzymes from pathogens are called virulence factors.

true

The most likely place where an exoenzyme participates in a chemical reaction is

Within the cell membrane

Enzymes that function inside a cell are

Endoenzymes

Enzymes that are always present, regardless of the amount of substrate are

Constitutive enzymes

Important components of coenzymes are

Vitamins

Intermediates from the Krebs cycle can be converted to amino acids by the process of

Amination

True or False: Recently discovered bacteria inhabiting the ocean floor undergo photosynthesis using light from chemical reactions, the breaking of mineral crystals or from bubble formation.

true

True or False:





ATP is composed of deoxyribose, adenine and 3 phosphate groups.

false

Amination is the addition of a(n) _____ group to a carbon skeleton.

Amino

The reactions of fermentation function to produce _____ molecules for use in glycolysis.

NAD

A holoenzyme is a combination of a protein and one or more substances called

Cofactors

Each NADH that enters the electron transport system gives rise to _____ ATP.

3

Enzymes that catalyze removing electrons from one substrate and adding electrons to another are called

Oxidoreductases

True or False:





Denaturing an apoenzyme will destroy the three-dimensional shape of the protein, making it nonfunctional.

true

Which of the following is not true of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis?

Generates glucose from CO2 and H2O

Which of the following is not involved in the step that occurs between glycolysis and the Krebs cycle?

Pyruvic acid accepts electrons from NADH

The redox carriers of the electron transport chain that have a tightly bound metal atom responsible for accepting and donating electrons are

The cytochromes

Enzymes that are secreted by a cell to hydrolyze reactions are

Exoenzymes

A type of cofactor would be

Metallic ions

Exergonic reactions

Occur during aerobic cellular respiration

Enzymes that are only produced when substrate is present are termed

Induced enzymes

Enzymes are

Proteins that function as catalysts

Which of the following are characteristics of the Calvin cycle?

Produces glucose as an end product

True or False:





Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate is an intermediary of glycolysis that can also be utilized in biosynthetic pathways.

false

In bacterial cells, when glucose is completely oxidized by all the pathways of aerobic cellular respiration, what is the maximum number of ATP generated?

38 ATP

True or False:





Only yeast produces alcohol as a fermentation product.

false

Metabolic pathways that regenerate their starting point are called _____ pathways.

Cyclic

Enzymes that can function at boiling water temperatures or other harsh conditions would be termed

Extremozymes

Glycolysis

Uses 2 ATP, produces 4 ATP, without oxygen

True or False:





The best way to control a metabolic pathway is to control the fastest enzyme in the series.

false

How many carbon dioxide molecules are produced by the complete aerobic breakdown of one glucose molecule?

6

As the electron transport carriers shuttle electrons, they actively pump _____ into the outer membrane compartment setting up a concentration gradient called the proton motive force.

Hydrogen ions

Each of the following are denaturing agents except

Low temperature

All of the chemical reactions of the cell are called

Metabolism

Formation of peptide bonds between amino acids to build a polypeptide would be called

Anabolism

Reactants are converted to products by

Breaking and forming bonds

Each of the following are true of enzymes except

They increase the activation energy of a reaction

Enzymes that catalyze removal of carbon dioxide from a substrate are called

Decarboxylases

An oxidase detection test can be used to identify certain bacteria because they lack

cytochrome c oxidase

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