clinical mycology

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mycology

study of fungi

clinical mycology

study of those fungi important as causes of human infection

mycosis

infection or disease of fungal etiology (fungal infection)

mycetismus

poisoning due to ingestion (mycophagia) of toxic mushrooms- Amantia species

mycotoxicosis

intoxication due to ingestion of foods, typically grains, contaminated with fungal toxins (mycotoxins) - aflatoxin

aflatoxin

most well known toxin

fungal allergy

atopic hypersensitivity due to exposure to fungal antigans (allerign becouse of the spores they produce

somatic forms of fungi

yeast and mold

hypha

mold-tubular filament - septate or aseptate and vegetative or aerial

septate

septa in the hypha- crosswalls

aseptate

lack septa in the hypha- one long continious tube

vegetative

hypha- within the medium

aerial

hypha- above the medium

conidium

asexual fungal spore not formed by cleavage- microconidium and macroconidium

microconidium

generic term for small, single-celled conidium

macroconidium

generic term for large, multi-celled or septate conidium

endospore

produced by cleavage and contained within a membrane, such as a sporangium or spherule

chlamydospore

large, double-walled resting spore

blastoconidium

all yeast produce- conidia that is blown out from the mother cell, either a yeast or hypha (tip of the hypha is the active growing part

yeast

unicellular, asexual or sexual, in culture look like bacteria

mold

mulitcellular, filamentous, two types-hypha and mycelium

mycelium

total mass of hyphae comprising a fungus colony (dark brown/ black) grows in your fridge

arthroconidium

produced basipetally as part of a chain by septation and disarticulation of a conidiiogenous hypha

phialoconidium

blastic conidium produced basipetally and extruded from a conidiogenous cell (phialide)

tretoccoidium

(poroconidium) produced through minute pores in the wall of a conidiophore or previously formed conidium

sympodioconidium

blastic conidium produced basipetally in chains or balls from the tip of a conidiogenous cell (annellide) wherein a scared tip is left between each successive spore

zygomycota sexual spore

zygospore

zygomycota nonsexual spore

sporangiospore- sac like structure

zygomycota (water fungi)

contaminants and adventitious pathogens characterizied by rapid growth and aseptate hyphae

only group that has aseptate hyphae

zygomycota

asomycota (sac fungi)

contaminants and, advantitious and overt pathogens-advanced forms phylogenetically and largest number of species

asomycota sexual spore

asospore

asomycota nonsexual spore

conidia

basidiomycota (club fungi)

mushrooms, puffballs, rusts, and smuts; highest forms phyogenetically, no animal pathogens, some species cause mycotismus and mycotoxicosis

basidiomycota sexual spore

basidiospore

basidiomycota nonsexual spore

conidia

deuteromycota (fungi imperfecti)

sexual (perfect) mode of reproduction unknown, most animal pathogens in this group

deuteromycota sexual spore

absent

deuteromycota nonsexual spore

conidia

deuteromycota form classes

blastomycetes, coelomycetes, and hyphomycetes

blastomycetes

deuteromycota class; yeast-like fungi with blastoconidia

coelomycetes

deuteromycota class; conidia in pycnidium or acervulus

hyphomycetes

deuteromycota class; conidia borne on conidiophores or directly on hyphae (moniliaceae and dematiaceae)

moniliaceae

hyphae and conidia hyaline

dematiaceae

hyphae and conidia dark

J.W. Rippon

identification of fungi is still an exercise in contemplative observation

dimorphism

characteristic of some fungi wherin they exhibit two different somatic forms depending upon environmental conditions temp isthe main factor

dimorphic fungi in vitro

typically exists as a sporadic form in nature (mold or filamentous)

dimorphic fungi in vivo

parasitic form (yeast or non-mold)

fungi are classified based on

sexual sporalation

fungi cell wall contains

chitin

fungi growth

over wide pH range, temp range, requires adequate humidity, and indifferent to light

fungi primary mechanish of reproduction

sporulation followed by germination

fungi main function of spore

dissemination (dispersial) not extremely resistant they are problematic b/c they disperse into the air and are inhealed

fungi grow on

dead decaying things

fungi defined

eucaryotic, anerobic or faculative, saprophytic and hetertropic, and are usually filamentous, branched somatic structers with rigid cell wall

most fungal infections are

exogeneous in origin (environment) except tinea versicolor and candidosis

fungal infections that are part of the NF

tinea versicolor and candidosis

KOH wet mount

a rapid method for detection and assessment of fungal elements in clinical specimens

acid fast smear

limited value for ascosspores and Nocardia but not useful for fungi

nonspecific fluorochrome stains

Calcofluor white will bind to the cell wall

GS smear

Actinomyces and Nocordia

primary isolation of fungi

Sabouraud agar-peptone and dextrose (glucose)

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