Developmental Psych: Ch 13

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perspective taking

the ability to assume other people's perspectives and understand their thoughts and feelings

self-esteem

the global evaluative dimension of the self

self-concept

domain-specific evaluations of the self

preconventional reasoning

the lowest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development; the individual's concept of good and bad is interpreted primarily by external rewards and punishment

heteronomous morality

Kohlberg's first stage in preconventional reasoning in which moral thinking is tied to punishment

individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange

the second Kohlberg stage in preconventional reasoning

conventional reasoning

the second or intermediate level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development

individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange

at this stage, individuals pursue their own interests but also let others do the same

conventional reasoning

at this level, individuals abide by certain standards, but they are the standards of others such as parents or the government

mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity

Kohlberg's third stage of moral development

mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity

at this stage, individuals value trust, caring, and loyalty to others as a basis of moral judgments

social systems morality

the fourth stage in Kohlberg's theory of moral development

social systems morality

at this stage, moral judgments are based on understnading the social order, law, justice, and duty

postconventional reasoning

the highest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development

postconventional reasoning

at this level, the individual recognizes alternative moral courses, explores the options, and then decides on a personal moral code

social contract or utility and individual rights

the fifth Kohlberg stage

social contract or utility and individual rights

at this stage, individuals reason that values, rights, and principles undergird or transcend the law

universal ethical principles

the sixth and highest stage in Kohlberg's theory of moral development

universal ethical principles

individuals develop a moral standard based on universal human rights

inductive discipline

uses reasoning and focuses children's attention on the consequences of their actions for others, positively influences moral development

justice perspective

moral perspective that focuses on the rights of the individual; individuals independently make moral decisions

care perspective

the moral perspective of Carol Gilligan, which views people in terms of their connectedness with others and emphasizes interpersonal communication, relationships with others, and concern for others

social conventional reasoning

thoughts about social consensus and convention established in order to control behavior and maintain the social system

moral identity

formed when moral notions and moral commitments are central to one's life and the self is constructed with reference to moral categories

moral character

a person with this has the willpower, desires, and integrity to stand up to pressure, overcome distractions and disappointments, and behave morally

moral exemplar

someone who has lived a perfect moral life

gender stereotypes

broad categories that reflect our impressions and beliefs about males and females

rapport talk

language of conversation and a way of establishing connections and negotiating relationships

report talk

talk that conveys information

androgyny

the presence of positive masculine and feminine characteristics in the same individual

popular children

children who are frequently nominated as a best friend and are rarely disliked by their peers

average children

children who receive an average number of both positive and negative nominations from peers

neglected children

children who are infrequently nominated as a best friend but are not disliked by their peers

rejected children

children who are infrequently nominated as a best friend and are actively disliked by their peers

controversial children

children who are frequently nominated both as someone's best friend and as being disliked

bullying

verbal or physical behavior intended to disturb someone less powerful

intimacy in friendships

self-disclosure and the sharing of private thoughts

constructivist approach

learner-centered approach that emphasized the importance of individuals actively constructing their knowledge and understanding with guidance from the teacher

direct instruction approach

structured, teacher-centered approach that is characterized by teacher direction and control, mastery of academic skills, high expectations for students' progress, maximum time spent on learning tasks, and efforts to keep negative affect to a minimum

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