Gender Empowerment Measure
Compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making.
Gender-Related Development Index
Compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes.
Human Development Index
Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy.
Gross Domestic Product
The value of the total output of goods and services in a country in a given time period.
Less Developed Country
A country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development.
The percentage of a country's people who can read and write.
More Developed Country
A country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development.
The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry.
The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials.
Structural Adjustment Program
Economic policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencies.
The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities.
Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, caused by carbon dioxide trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface.
The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers.
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.
Prime Agricultural Land
The most productive farmland.
Reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds, which result from sexual fertilization.
Slash And Burn Agriculture
Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by smashing the vegetation and burning the debris.
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family.
Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution.